Topic sentence: establishes the scope of the paragraph Body of the paragraph

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Essay Structure Document

Paragraph transition sentence This is used when there is a need to provide a logical connection between the previous paragraph and this paragraph)
Topic sentence establishes the scope of the

Body of the paragraph: This will typically be three or more, and each sentence will relate to the topic sentence.

Concluding sentence: This could conclude a point or indicate an issue left unresolved. Introduction
Research question or problematic: This is ab topic sentence
that introduces both this paragraph and the entire essay.

Outline and methodology: This provides an outline addressing how the research question will be addressed. It explains what topics will be covered, and why, and introduces methodological issues.
Thesis statement: This is ab concluding sentence
that not only concludes this paragraph, but indicates what conclusion the essay will reach not just that a conclusion will be reached) Essay
Introduction: this introduces the research question or problematic, the scope and methodology of the paper, and a thesis statement. It prepares the reader for the entirety of the argument that follows. It functions like ab topic sentence in a paragraph.
Body of the essay This develops the argument outlined in the introduction. It is composed of numerous paragraphs, each constructed according to the structure at the top left of this page.
Concluding paragraph: This has ab topic sentence that recalls the problematic, ab bodyb that looks retrospectively at the essay to demonstrate the key issues and logic of the paper, and ab conclusionb that establishes, but in greater detail, the essay conclusion that the thesis statement identifies.
Short essays: The introduction and conclusion will typically be one paragraph each.
Long essays: The introduction and conclusion maybe many paragraphs.

To help understand an argument, one strategy is to reverse engineer an outline. To do this, identify the problematic or research question, the thesis, and each topic sentence. Compare these to the conclusion. Headings will also be useful, when they are provided. If a publication includes an abstract, read that too. Once you have done this, reread the paper, keeping your outline handy. This will help you to distinguish between the central thread of the argument, and the elements of the essay used to establish the central argument. Some essays will be more schematic than others. The more schematic, the easier this model will be to apply, but even for essays that are not so clearly structured, modelling the essay as I outline here will help you to comprehend it.

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