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1 The principal approaches to an analysis of the various types of visions of the ideal state of social perfection (paradisiacal myth, millennium and Utopian city) are found in Laplantine, 1974 and Wunenburger, 1979. The latter is mainly inspired by that of G. Durand, 1979a and 1979b.
2 Even the sociological approaches to Utopia tend to confuse it with the vision of a state of social perfection in general. Cf. Duveau, 1961, Mannheim. 1956, Servien, 1967 and Bloch, 1976.
3 On the general presence of these traits in paradisiacal myths as well as in millenarianism and Utopia, see the works of M. Eliade, especially : Eliade, 1971, pp. 139-205 ; 1962, pp. 181-232 ; 1957, pp. 40-59 and 78-94. See also Wunenburger, 1979. On the representations of paradise, see Guhl, 1972, for a general review ; Corbin, 1953 and 1963, and Soderblom, 1901, for the Iranian tradition ; Daniélou, 1953, for Christianity. See also Gillet, 1975, for examples in literature.
4 A functioning that usually implies nudity and sexual liberty. See Eliade, 1962, pp. 181-232 and Desroches, 1978.
5 The myths of paradise and the Golden Age speak of justice and abundance rather than of equality. See Eliade, 1952, pp. 73-119 ; the myth of the Golden Age in Hesiod, Works and Days : and Virgil, IV Bucolics. In Messianisms and millenatianisms, there is never political equality between the leader, his acolytes and the faithful, not always a real economic equality and rarely equality between men and women. See Barret and Gurgand, 1981 ; Cohn. 1970, for Western millenarianisms. See Lanternari, 1962, and Queiroz, 1968, for those of the Third World. As for Utopias, it is known that it would be difficult to call the Republic of Plato or the Abbey of Thélème of Rabelais egalitarian ; the egalitarianism of More is strictly economic : on his island there is no political equality or equality between men and women. On Utopias, see Servier, 1967 ; Lapouge, 1978 ; Manuel and Manuel, 1979.
6 Concerning the use of the conception of space and time and the passage between real society and ideal society as criteria of differentiation of the paradisiacal myth, the millennium and the Utopian city, see Eliade, 1963 and 1969 ; Desroches, 1969 and 1973 ; and Wunenburger, 1979.
8 On this aspect of mythical thought., see Eliade, 1963 and 1969.
9 See Eliade, 1969 ; and Eliade, 1949, ch. VII-XII.
10 See Eliade, 1951 and 1969.
11 Compare with schemas of Desroches, 1973 ; and Wunenburger, 1979.
12 On the place of this passage within the religious evolution of mankind, there is a mine of indications and information in Eliade, 1980.
13 There is a considerable literature on millenarianism and Messianism. Essential information and bibliography will be found in Burridge, 1969 ; Desroches, 1969 and 1973 ; and Thrupp, 1962. For the West, see Cohn, 1967 and 1970 ; and Hobsbawm, 1963. For the Third World, a general survey in Lanternari, 1962 ; and Queiroz, 1968. Among the most interesting studies on the subject are those of Worsley, 1957, on the "cargo" cult in Melanesia and those of Métraux. 1928 and Clastres, 1975 on the disputed Messianism of the Guarani Indians.
14 In the preceding two paragraphs is found the essential of Eliade's analysis (1963 and 1967), which is taken up by Wunenburger, 1979.
15 For the cyclic theory of ages, see the classic analysis by Eliade, 1969. The most elaborated versions of the myth of the ages of humanity are found in the ancient Greeks (Hesiod, Works and Days) and Romans (Ovid. Metamorphoses) and in India (Eliade, 1952, ch. II). For ancient Mexico, see Racine, 1965, and Yanez, 1964.
16 This passage is particularly clear in the fourth Bucolics of Virgil.
17 I took the two preceding points from Eliade, 1963 and 1969, and 1949, ch. VII-XII.
18 On Jewish Messianism, see Klausner, 1956, and Eliade, 1980.
19 See Cohn, 1970 ; Desroches, 1969 ; Rigaux, 1932 ; and Vulliaud, 1952.
20 Like millenarianism, Utopia has been widely studied. The principal synthetized studies and bibliographies will be found in Manuel and Manuel, 1979 ; Servier, 1967 ; Suvin, 1977 ; Versins, 1972 ; and Wunenburger, 1979. Some other interesting studies are Buber, 1977 ; Cioranescu, 1972 ; Mucchielli, 1960 ; Mumford, 1966 ; and Ruyer, 1950. See also references in note 2.
21 See Daniélou, 1953 on the different localizations of the Christian paradise.
22 See Salin, 1926, for Augustinian thought.
23 For the disputes between St. Augustine and the Gnostics, see Decret 1974. For Gnostic thought in general, see Leisegang, 1971 and Puesch, 1978.
24 For the struggle of the millenarian movements against the Church, see Cohn, 1970.
25 For the thought and influence of Joachim of Flora, see Bloomfield, 1957.
26 For millenarian currents in the West, see Cohn, 1970 and Desroches, 1969 and 1973.
27 On Müntzer, see Cohn, 1970. On Jean de Leyde, see Cohn, 1970 ; and Barret and Gurgand, 1979.
28 See Manuel and Manuel, 1979.
29 On Utopian thought in the Greco-Roman world, see Manuel and Manuel, 1979 ; Lapouge, 1978 ; and Ferguson, 1975. See also Servier, 1967.
30 On the Utopian thought of More and the pan-Sophists, and on the emergence of the primacy of scientific rationality, see Manuel and Manuel, 1979 ; Eurich, 1967 ; and Desroches, 1972.
31 On this phase of Utopian thought, see Manuel and Manuel, 1979 ; Desroches, 1872 ; and Desanti, 1970.
32 The particular place of Sade and Fourier in Utopian thought is well covered by Lapouge, 1978. On Fourier, see Desroches, 1975, and Debout, 1978.
34 On telematic Utopia, see Toffler, 1980. In a way, the present opposing Utopia, centered on a change of conscience and recently set forth by M. Ferguson, 1981 evokes a return to the pan-Sophist view.