Objectivizing the Researcher's Eyes- Rethinking Approaches Toward Sport and 'Peace'- Building Firstly, this paper briefly touches on the author's seven days in Srebrenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina where the author encountered difficulties to situate himself as a researcher within the post-conflict context and the sport practice of the people. Secondly, this paper reviews studies on the topic, especially focusing on the researchers' perspective toward the notion of 'peace'-building. 'Peace'-building is mostly examined within the space of sport-based intervention programs, and the studies tend to focus on a functional analysis of sport intervention and discussion of ways to measure the success/failure of the programs. However, it is still unclear how 'peace' examined from the space of intervention is situated within the entirety of the people's lives. Similarly, the notion of 'peace' itself remains in a highly generalized form. Through the analysis, this paper highlights the researcher's perspective as one of the causes of framing 'peace'-building in a limited form. Bourdieu's notion of 'reflexivity' is discussed here to objectivize the researcher's perspective. Finally, the importance of seeing sport practice itself rather than discussing sport framed within 'peace'- building a priori, is emphasized. Contact zone theory by anthropologists Pratt is suggested for consideration.
Session Title: Sport for Development II
Session Type:Paper Presentation session
Note: FULL/4 Participants: P1: Jared D. Kope, University of Ottawa and Alexandra Arellano University of
Exploring Aboriginal Youth Practices through the Promoting Life-skills in Aboriginal Youth (PLAY) Program Post-colonial and critical approaches studying sport for development and peace (SDP) initiatives have questioned its practices and effectiveness, scrutinized its goals and the interests they ultimately serve, and examined its significance as a tool to reproduce but also resist hegemonic forces. Building on critical approaches and decolonizing methodologies, this work proposes a postcolonial indigenous research framework using participatory action research to explore the local voices on a SDP experience for Aboriginal youth. Celebrating local voices intends to subsume the deficit theorizing that typically nourishes indigenous research, which tends to reproduce stereotypes of hopelessness and a lack of agency. In this study, local voices on the Promoting Life Skills in Aboriginal Youth program are explored, using photo voice research method with a participating community. The PLAY program was initiated in 2010 and partly funded by the Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs of Ontario; it is implemented and managed by Right To Play Canada in 55 First Nation communities of Ontario and Manitoba. This study is part of a SSHRC funded research that is based on a partnership with some of the partner First Nation communities and Right To Play. This paper contextualizes the research within the aforementioned working collaboration; it presents the role of the Aboriginal advisory committee that was created to orient the research design, to serve local interests and to further Aboriginal nation-building. 32 days of fieldwork were undertaken in May 2013 and results from the data collection will be presented. P2: Sophie Gartner-Manzon, University of Ottawa and Audrey R. Giles, University of Ottawa
Alberta's Future Leaders Program: Long-Term Impacts Alberta's Future Leaders (AFL) Program is an Aboriginal youth development through sport, recreation, and arts program that has been operating in Alberta, Canada since 1996 (Galipeau, 2012). Every year, the Program hires seasonal youth workers and arts mentors, predominantly post-secondary education students who are Eurocanadian and from urban centres, who are tasked with helping Aboriginal youth who live on First Nations reserves and Métis settlements to become future leaders. Sport for development programs are assumed to foster social change; however, this change is rarely measured and it is not always clear who exactly reaps the benefits. Indeed, there is a lack of research about the long-term impacts of participation on those who provide and receive sport for development programs. In this presentation, we use a postcolonial lens to explore the long-term impacts, as reported through semi-structured interviews, that program participation had on youth workers and arts mentors who worked for AFL between 1996 and 2008. P3: Craig D. Cameron, University of Regina
Are We Asking the Wrong Question? A Case Study of Development Partnership in Sport for Development and Peace As sport for development and peace (SDP) matures, it has a responsibility to be both self-critical and to contribute to ‘mainstream’ development. The presentation focuses on the latter. Since the late 1990s, partnership has become the de facto development relationship. During this time, it has promised a new development paradigm and delivered, arguably, little. This dilemma has motivated practitioners and academics to ask ‘what is partnership?’ But is this right question? The Trinidad and Tobago Alliance for Sport and Physical Activity (TTASPE) was recognized as a SDP leader. TTASPE contributes a part of its success to the strength of its partnerships. A case study of TTASPE and 13 of its partners (international, national and local), identified 16 essential partnership characteristics. Attempting to move away from restrictive normative or prescriptive partnership models, these characteristics were recognized as items for reflection within and discussion between partner organizations. As such, partnership was experienced as, though not always expressed as, a process of individual and collective identity formation. Furthermore, the misunderstanding between partnership ideals and practices was complicated when organizations failed to openly acknowledge that their actual measure of good partnership differs from their espoused measure. In summary, this case study of SDP partnership suggests that development partnerships are better served when organizations stop asking ‘what is partnership?’ and start asking ‘who are we as partners?’ P4: Velina B. Brackebusch, University of Georgia
Evaluation of a Sport for Development Youth Program in Eastern Europe Evaluation of sport for development programs has been a widely discussed topic in the sport sociology field due to increased funding of programs by state departments and world organizations. However, there are still no concrete ways of how to assess the successful implementation of such projects. This uncertainty is due to the wide variety of programs that use sport in aiding community development around the globe. This paper evaluates a project in Eastern Europe that involves participants from five different countries. The goals of the program were to contribute in creating an active attitude in youth about healthy lifestyles and skills of intercultural understanding through the practice of sports. Participants were 50 young people from different cultural, religious and social status. This research takes into account the participants' views about the project and how they felt the activities helped them overcome cultural barriers and achieved the goals of the program. Furthermore, the paper makes a comparison between the sport-related and non-sport-related activities to see whether sport was more helpful in achieving program goals. Ultimately, the purpose of this research is to highlight the successful practices in order to improve the future performance of similar programs.
Session Title: Representations of Female Athletes
Session Type:Paper Presentation session
Note: FULL/3 Participants: P1: Letisha E. Brown, University of Texas at Austin
Beauties, Beasts and Beyond: Controlling Images and Black Female Sporting Bodies Discourse on controlling images and black women, tends to focus on the discussion of music videos and lyrics within hip-hop culture (Collins, 2005; Emerson, 2002; Reid-Brinkley). Nevertheless, this arena is not the only place in which stereotypical representations of black women's bodies reigns supreme. To that end, this paper will engage with a critical analysis of controlling images of black women in society at large, focusing specifically on the ways in which these images have been co-opted and (re)produced within the context of sport. Specifically, this paper will engage with in-depth discussions of the representation of Florence "Flo" Jo Griffith Joyner, Caster Semenya and Brittney Griner as examples of three dominating images of black women in sport. From there, this paper will discuss the ways in which Audre Lorde's conceptualization of the erotic "as a resource within each of us that lies in a deeply female spiritual plane, firmly rooted in the power of our unexpressed or unrecognized feelings" (1984: 53), can help us to redefine the contours of femininity in general and black femininity in particular. P2: Steve L. Bien-Aime, Pennsylvania State University
Hair Apparent Legacy: Mainstream Media Framing of Gabby Douglas's Hair In the 2012 London Olympics, Gabrielle "Gabby" Douglas made history as the first African-American woman to win "gold in the individual all-around gymnastics competition" (Calder, 2012). What should have been a shining moment for Douglas and perhaps for black Americans quickly turned into an episode of self-loathing. Douglas' moment was not spoiled by a Don Imus-like joke. Instead, Douglas's critics were essentially anonymous individuals on the micro-blogging site Twitter and whose voices were later amplified by mainstream media. Through quantitative content analysis, this paper examined the types of coverage Douglas received about her hair from mainstream print news outlets and whether the journalists cited black people as the source for the outrage regarding Douglas's hair, essentially framing it as a black issue instead of a larger societal problem. Perhaps the most glaring takeaway from this study is the invisibility of whiteness, not from the position that it is ignored, but there is little discussion of dismantling or critiquing the larger systems that contribute to insecurities over "black" hair, i.e., the belief that American society embraces only the white standard of beauty. This myopic viewpoint also contributed to the framing of the furor regarding Douglas's hair as solely a black issue. P3: Nancy E. Spencer, Bowling Green State University
“You Want the American to Win? Which one?”(Maria or Serena?) On June 8, 2013, during the French Open Women's final, tennis commentator Jon Wertheim shared the above tweet from Megan Fernandez. The tweet suggests that Megan cannot differentiate between the nationalities of Maria Sharapova (Russian) and Serena Williams (American), and assumes that both are American. Ever since the 17-year old Sharapova upset Williams in the 2004 Wimbledon Singles final, the assumption of her American identity has commonly been expressed. During the 2004 broadcast, Mary Carillo gushed over the Russian-born teen-ager, saying that the U.S. would gladly adopt her. Although Serena Williams is arguably "the most dominant figure in sports today"— male or female (Rodrick, 2013, para. 1), she has rarely been considered an "American icon." After Serena demolished Maria to win the Gold medal at the 2012 London Olympics, Sharapova was described as "the blonde, leggy Barbie doll" (Forgrave, 2012, para. 3). How can we comprehend the disparity in praise and endorsement earnings between the two? Toni Morrison (1991) offers insight by writing that "American means white" (p. 47). Shome (2001) explains "the relationship between white femininity and national identity", where white femininity means "an ideological construction through which meanings about white women and their place in the social order are naturalized" (p. 323).
Session Title: Ethnographic Discourses in Sport I
Session Type:Paper Presentation session
Note: FULL/4 Participants: P1: John M. Paul, Washburn University and Sharla Blank, Washburn University
The Power of Roller Derby: Sport, Gender, Sexuality, and Transformation This paper explores the ways in which gender, sexuality and athleticism are constructed and expressed by participants of a women's flat track roller derby team. As an ethnographic study, we document the motivations for participation and the cultural and symbolic meanings embedded in the play of the sport itself. In this manner, we also include an analysis of the symbolic presentation of the body, including the display of fashion, tattoos, cosmetic makeup and the self-naming choices that represent the players' sense of identity. Lastly, we correspondingly examine the broader transformative aspects of derby, detailing specifically the ways by which female participants grow personal confidence and gain social power, positively convert images and understandings of womens' bodies, and work to make over roller derby into a broadly accepted sport. P2: Michele K. Donnelly, University of Southern California
“There are no Balls in Roller Derby:” Roller Derby and the Production of a Women Onlyness Gender Regime In this presentation, I discuss my ethnographic research of a women's flat track roller derby league—Anon City Roller Girls—as a case study of "women onlyness." Women's flat track roller derby is a useful site through which to explore my research problem: problematizing contemporary women onlyness; a research problem developed in direct contrast to the dominant (naturalized, essentialized, assumed) approach to women onlyness. Taking a fresh look at women-only social formations by problematizing women onlyness, through exploring women's experiences of and meaning making about women onlyness, calls critical attention to women onlyness. I found that roller derby skaters are active in the production of a particular women onlyness gender regime. Specifically, women's flat track roller derby skaters consistently and constantly negotiate essentialized stereotypes of gender as they "win space" for themselves in traditionally male-dominated and masculine defined activities and settings, and make meaning of their involvement. Skaters produce women onlyness gender regimes in the ways they make time and space for and gender mark these activities, and in social interactions with each other, men, and other women. This myopic viewpoint also contributed to the framing of the furor regarding Douglas's hair as solely a black issue.
P3: Matthew Hawkins, Carleton University
“They say We are All Crazy” - Singing and the Collective Interconnections on the Soccer Terraces of Buenos Aires Organized singing is one of the defining characteristics of Argentinian soccer supporter culture. The lyrics written over popular melodies often describe the supporter's passion for their club, the intensity of their rivalries, a state of intoxication, and desires for championships. The creativity of the lyrics is often a source of pride for supporters. The lyrics also reveal underlying collectively communicated concepts of loyalty, masculinity, and supporter ideologies. Learning the songs not only requires remembering words and melodies but also the shared bodily practices. Fists pumping, the coordinated clapping, and thousands jumping are influenced by the musicality of the songs and produce a bodily and emotional dialogue with the unfolding soccer match. Outside the stadium at a national scale, the songs share their musical form with popular expressions made during the annual carnival and political manifestations. Through the use of internet media, international recognition of Argentinian soccer culture has led to translations of many Argentinian stadium practices such as singing interconnecting local supporter cultures. This paper explores these general themes through specific examples based on ethnographic field research that was completed with supporters of Club Atlético San Lorenzo de Almagrofrom Buenos Aires. P4: Meghan M. Ferriter, Smithsonian Institution Archives, George Mason University
“You must be new:” Becoming Fans and Communicating Values While Defining International Sport Online Though excellent analyses of sport fans online have been conducted – for example in listservs and chat rooms, fantasy sports culture, and social media such as Twitter – the activity of micro-blogging platforms remains under-explored in relation to the ways fans develop cultural competencies through discussing international women's football and discourse work. Tumblr offers a unique space through which United States Women's National soccer Team (USWNT) fans affirm a collective identity, while refining (trans)national representations for a broader imagined community. Social networking sites like Tumblr allow fans to gather and share resources - opening multimodal communication across spatial and temporal boundaries. Exploring this space through ethnography and discourse analysis, this paper unpacks the ways in which fans express their beliefs; using mediated discourse and user-generated content to learn, debate, and define athletes, nationalities, sexualities, gendered behavior, and social relationships. By appealing to an interpretive community with a constantly re-articulated cultural framework, fans mark group boundaries while defining global flows of professional women's football. Finally, a discursive space is established through a combination of asynchronous communication and live blogging; one in which processes of acculturation to technology and to the values of the fandom pin down social relationships in specific sporting moments.
Session Title: Ableism and Paralympics
Session Type:Paper Presentation session
Note: FULL/4 Participants: P1: Eli A. Wolff, Brown University; David Legg, Mt. Royal University; Mary Hums, University of Louisville; Ted Fay, SUNY-Cortland and Cathy Macdonald, SUNY-Cortland
Ableism/Internalized Ableism and the Olympic and Paralympic Movements Why would the Paralympic Movement not want to fully integrate with the language, symbols, ideals and values of the Olympic Movement? Why would Paralympians want to have separate language, symbols, ideals and values from Olympians? Also, why would Olympians and the Olympic Movement not want to embrace athletes with disabilities as part of the Olympic Movement? Perhaps it is possible to analyze the situation through the lens of ableism and internalized ableism. What are the parallels with sexism, racism and homophobia within the Olympic Movement? From the civil rights and human rights movement, the principle of "separate is not equal" has emerged and has created a framework for "within, not beside" that also has implications for the relationship between the Olympic and Paralympic Movements. This paper will discuss and analyze the ways in which other realms of diversity and inclusion (race, gender, LGBT) have become organized and are ongoing and consistent in their efforts, education and advocacy. The authors will discuss and contextualize the limited yet emerging activity taking place with respect to the Paralympics and athletes with disabilities. This paper builds on previous work of scholars (Bailey, 2008; Brittain, 2010; Fay & Wolff, 2009; Howe, 2008; Hums, Wolff, Fay, 2005; Legg, Burchell, Jarvis & Sainsbury, 2009; Legg, Fay, Hums & Wolff, 2009; Legg & Steadward, 1996, 2011) examining the relationship between the Olympic and Paralympic Movements and provides a specific analysis through the lens of ableism and internalized ableism. This paper is intended to stimulate further dialogue, debate and research as it relates to the intersection of the Olympic and Paralympic Movements, and more broadly on the topic of inclusion and diversity in the Olympic Movement. P2: Shane Kerr, Loughborough University and P. David Howe, Loughborough University
Making Sense of Paralympic Legacy through the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games Underpinned by the practice theory of Pierre Bourdieu, this paper presents our on-going research into legacy and the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games, specifically in relation to disability and disability sport. The distinctiveness of London and the UK as recent hosts to the Paralympic Games, a celebrated yet problematic modern symbol of disability empowerment, is proposed by paying homage to historically and contemporarily significant events, such as the historical origins of the Paralympic Games in Stoke Mandeville to the UK's 2010 Equality Act. Such a concatenation of events convened to produce a sociologically rich area of research. Our research began as an exploration of Paralympic legacy, its meaning, potential value and risks. Of historical importance are the insertion of legacy into the Olympic Charter in 2003, and the signing of the Paralympic hosting agreement in 2001. Methods included a discourse analysis of bidding and planning documentation related to the Paralympic Games and semi-structured interviewing key actors from the corporate (including media), government, disability and disability sport fields. The study of this interrelation of fields highlights the realpolitik construction of Paralympic legacy from the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. P3: Joshua R. Pate, James Madison University; Timothy Mirabito, Marist College and Robin Hardin, University of Tennessee
“The Other Games:” Coverage of the 2012 Paralympic Games in the Top 20 U.S. Newspapers The 2012 Paralympic Games in London were celebrated as the greatest international disability sport contest, and media coverage within the host country reflected as much with special print and online sections. In the United States, however, there was little media coverage. The purpose of this study was to explore the media coverage of the 2012 Paralympic Games among the top 20 U.S. newspapers. An advanced LexisNexis search from August 22, 2012, to September 16, 2012, revealed just 12 of the 20 newspapers published articles on the Paralympic Games, leaving 39 articles for examination. Using framing analysis as a guide, findings showed that media covered the Paralympic Games by giving athletes a lower baseline for success (e.g., low expectations), over-celebrating athletic accomplishments (e.g., supercrip), or by covering a local participant (e.g., local hero). This study suggests that among the little U.S. media coverage dedicated to the 2012 Paralympic Games, much of it focused on topics other than athletic accomplishment. Such treatment of Paralympic sport in the United States reinforces a perceived detachment between disability and sport, and the discrepancies in media coverage in the United States further highlight the inability to meet the global standards of covering athletes with disabilities.