Paleolithic Age Neolithic Age



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Early Civilizations

Name ________________






Paleolithic Age

Neolithic Age

Description of Art and Crafts

Painted cave walls (usually animals)

  • made pottery and carved objects out of wood

  • built tombs and shelters

How Humans Obtained Food

Hunters and gatherers

  • farmed in permanent villages

  • raised and herd animals

How Humans Adapted

  • learned to make fire

  • created a language

  • made simple tools and shelters

  • built mud-brick houses and places of worship

  • specialized in certain jobs

  • used copper/bronze to create more useful tools

Work of Men and Women

  • women – gathered food and cared for the children

  • men - hunted

  • women – cared for children and performed household tasks

  • men – herded, farmed, and protected the village

Advances in tool making

  • flint – axes and spears

  • skilled tools – fishhooks and needles

sickle



  • What are some results of people developing specialized skills? Improving quality, trading, making things beautiful rather than making things useful__________

  • Why did people live in larger communities during the Neolithic Age than earlier times?

They started farming and could grow enough food to support more people______

  • Bronze is a mixture of copper and tin.

  • Times of extreme cold when great sheets of ice covered parts of the earth were the Ice Ages.

Mesopotamia

  • First civilizations arose near (in)_river valleys.

  • Climate – hot and dry; spring rains_______________________________________



  • Class system:

    • Upper class – kings, priests, and government officials

    • Middle class – artisans, merchants, farmers, and fishers

    • Lower class – enslaved people

  • Why did Sumerians build walls around their city-states? For protection

  • Cuneiform was the Sumerian writing system.

  • Temples called ziggurats were built to honor the chief god.

  • The few Sumerians who learned how to write often became scribes, holding positions in society.

  • Hammurabi wrote a legal code that covered most areas of daily life.

The First Empires

  • The center of the Chaldean empire was at Babylon.

  • A group of traveling merchants was called caravan.


Babylon under the Chaldeans

-rebuilt Babylon

-world’s largest and richest city

-Hanging Gardens

-center of science (astronomers)

Chaldeans

Assyrians

.

Review and terms to know:



  • Skilled workers who made metal products, cloth, or pottery are called artisans.

  • List the 5 themes of geography – Location, Place, Region, Movement, and Human/Environment Interaction__________________________________________

  • People who study and write about the human past are called historians.

  • Give examples for relative and absolute location. ______________________________

__________________________________________________________________

  • Region is a geographical area that has common features.

  • The relationship between people and their surroundings is Human/Environment Interaction.

  • People in one area relating to people and their surroundings in another area is movement.



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