Outlines for “a history of the Modern World” 9th Edition


The Emergence of Cromwell



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chapter 4 palmer colton outline.rev.0809

The Emergence of Cromwell

  1. Roundhead (Puritans) defeated the royalists

      1. Close haircuts of the Puritans

  2. Cromwell organized a military force to advance the Puritan effort

      1. More effective military (called the Ironsides) religiously motivated

  3. Army is of more “popular” make up than Parliament and demand broader religious policies

  4. Cromwell calls for the execution of Charles I

      1. Parliament resists

      2. Cromwell purges the Parliament to a “Rump” with the army

      3. had 500 members in 1640 and sunk to 150 in 1649

        1. Cromwell reduced it to 50-60

        2. called this operation Pride’s Purge(after Puritan general in charge of intimidating Parliament)

        3. 1649 King is condemned of treason and executed “regicide” in 1649

  5. British Isles is declared a republican commonwealth

  6. Cromwell subdues Ireland and Scotland by force

    1. Scots not pleased with Stuart execution (he was a Scot)

    2. Ireland:

      1. Protestants were massacre in 1641 in Ulster

      2. Garrisons of Wexford and Drogheda are massacred by Cromwell

        1. Priests, as well as “women and children dispatched in cold blood”

        2. Protestants now take over aristocracy of entire island (not just Ulster) (mostly absentee landlords)

        3. Redistributed land to adventurers that ruled in absence

  7. Cromwell was more successful abroad

    1. Ireland, Navigation Act of 1651, maritime attack on the Dutch, preying on the Spanish empire

  8. In domestic affairs Cromwell had to continually become more strident…

    1. Levellers (liberal and popular) ask for universal male suffrage, a constitution, and equal representation

    2. led by John Lilburne (civilian)



      1. George Fox founded the Society of Friends or Quakers

        1. insisted that believers can have revelations of spiritual truth and rejected hierarchies

      2. Diggers rejected the idea of property

      3. As a regicide (King killer) he cannot turn to the royalist (conservative and elite)

      4. 1653 Cromwell bans Parliament and becomes “Lord Protector”

        1. Provides a constitution “Instrument of Government”

        2. In reality: military dictatorship

          1. Closed ale houses, prohibited cock fighting

      5. 1658 Cromwell dies and his son is unable to maintain the Protectorate

      6. 1660 the crown in restored “Restorationwith Charles II

        1. Religious intolerance was equated thereafter with military dictatorship

        2. Reaction is in full swing as “levelling” is considered abhorrent and popular interests are abandoned


4.20: Britain: The Triumph of Parliament



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