Necessity of Chicano to learn English, but not the reverse.
Three-generation passage from Spanish to English dominance: Grandparents resist moving to English; parents as uneasy translators, and third generation use English.
Community of practice
Related to the idea of a speech community is the concept of a community of practice.
A community of practice is a group of individuals who interact regularly, developing unique ways of doing things together.
Examples of communities of practice could include choir groups, sailing clubs, study groups.
For me, one community of practice are my colleagues in anthropology.
Ethnography of Speaking 1
Ethnography of communication
Also called the ethnography of speaking.
Developed in 1960s by Dell Hymes, this methodology is a way of describing and analyzing the ways people use language in real situations.
By doing fieldwork, linguistic anthropologists learn the basics of communicative competence in a new speech community.
Doing an ethnography of communication
The importance of fieldwork:
What are the rules for speaking?
For not speaking?
How do children learn the rules?
Immersion into the culture is the best way to understand how people think about and use language.
SPEAKING: An acronym to guide research
S-P-E-A-K-I-N-G is the acronym developed by Hymes to discuss the basic areas of research needed to understand language in speech communities
The acronym stands for seven basic arenas of research: Setting, participants, ends, act sequences, keys, instrumentalities, norms, and genre.
Setting/Situation/Scene refers to the place in which the conversati0on is taking place in the broadest sense & the overall psychological feeling of the place.
There will be specific and unwritten ideas about what is ‘normal’ conversation.
Lecture expectations: 1) Professor will lecture or engage students in a discussion; 2) students will not interrupt the professor or fellow students; 3) professor will be prepared. Difference: Americans ask questions during class (American) and Japanese after class.
Ethnography of Speaking 2
SPEAKING: An acronym to guide research (continued)
Setting/Situation/Scene can also affect the specific kinds of responses people are likely to make.
“How are you?” will solicit a different answer in the doctor’s office than in other locations.
“Whew, it’s hot!” may be a comment on the weather (when there is not control) or a request for turning on the air conditioner.
Participants refers to who can or should be involve in various speech events or conversations and what is expected of the various individuals.
In North America, children when present are expected not to contribute to the conversations of adults. [Children should be seen and not heard.]
Adults, in this same community, are expected to be very careful what they say in front of children, so that the children will not repeat what they heard! [Little pitchers have big ears.]
In some cultures, non-humans can be considered conversational partners.
Ghosts and spirits can speak through individuals.
Deities can also speak through individuals.
Famous example of 2 female lecturers, one European American and other Asian.
The same dress, hair and such were worn and each women lectured to one of two separate groups.
The listeners of the Asian woman reported she had an accent and that they comprehended less.
Gender stereotypes are still popular among Westerners.
The idea that men and women speak in different speech styles.