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Original: English

The Commonwealth Network of Information

Technology for Development Foundation


United Nations Educational,

Scientific and Cultural Organization Paris, 2002

Original: English (CI-2002/WS/1)

Country Profiles OF E-GOVERNANCE:

The Commonwealth Network of Information

Technology for Development Foundation


United Nations Educational,

Scientific and Cultural Organization

The views expressed are those of the author and not necessarily those of UNESCO.

The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion what so ever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

Recommended catalogue entry:

Joint UNESCO and COMNET-IT Study of E-Governance: Development of Country Profiles / prepared by the COMNET-IT Foundation.- Paris: UNESCO, 2002. - ii, 97 p. ; 30 cm. -


I - Title


Introduction …………………………………………………………….1

Background 1

Method 1

Some Observations on the findings 2

1. Botswana 5

Introduction 5

E-Governance 5

2. Canada 8

Background 8

3. Estonia 12

Introduction 12

Rapid development of information infrastructure 12

More attention to support activities 13

Efficiency and service orientation 13

Appendix – Summary of the e-Governance situation in Estonia 15

4. Hungary 17

Background 17

5. India 20

Background 20

Issues 22

E-Governance - A discussion note on the issues involved. 24

6. Jamaica 26

Background 26

Public Access to Government Services 27

7. Malaysia 30

Background 30

Infrastructure 30

Enterprise 31

Human Capacity 31

Content and Applications 31

Strategic Compact 32

Electronic Government 37

8. Malta 39

Introduction 39

E-Governance 39

9. Mauritius 44

Introduction 44

E-Governance 44

Appendix: Some of major e-Governance projects (Mauritius) 47

10. Mexico 52

Background 52

E-Government/Governance 52

E-Mexico Project 55

11. Morocco 57

Background 57

Ensure access to telecom, postal and IT services for Moroccan businesses in order to improve their competitiveness. The Secretariat considers it critically important that optimal conditions of timing, quality and price be met in satisfying business demand for such services. The range of available services must also be wide enough to meet the expressed demand. 57

Achievements 58

Development programme 60

Postal services 65

Information technology 67

12. New Zealand 70

Background 70

Programme delivery 72

13. Republic of Korea 76

Korea's Action Plan for Electronic Government 76

Implementation of electronic government 79

14. South Africa 84

Background 84

Creating the Enabling Policy Environment 86

15. United Republic of Tanzania 88

Background 88

E-Government 88

Annex: Questionnaire for the Survey 91



The term Governance may be described as the process by which society steers itself. In this process, the interactions among the State, Private Enterprise and Civil Society are being increasingly conditioned and modified through the influence of information and communication technologies (ICTs), constituting the phenomenon of e-Governance. Examples of these shifts in dynamics are exemplified by:

  • the use of the Internet by Civil Society, NGOs and professional associations to mobilize opinion and influence decision-making processes that affect them

  • the increasing electronic delivery of Government and commercial services and information

  • the electronic publication of draft legislation and statements of direction for public feedback

  • on the infrastructure side, the increased adoption of e-enabled community centres, the liberalization of telecommunication markets and trends towards web-enabled mobile telephony and digital television are facilitating this evolution.

E-Governance is thus a wider concept than e-Government which is the use of ICTs in the dissemination and services of government. Following the COMNET IT/UNESCO Global Survey on On-line Governance published in 2000 (UNESCO document CII-2000/WS/09, see http://www.comnet.mt/unesco/), the Commonwealth Network of Information Technology for Development (COMNET-IT), in association with and with the financial support of UNESCO, has developed national profiles detailing current status and developments in this area. Whilst impacts of e-Governance in the commercial, NGO and professional areas are covered in these studies, the main focus centres around specific Government initiatives, such as:

  • the development of cyberlaws

  • the liberalization of telecommunications

  • plans for e-Government

  • plans for the development of an Info-Society

  • the deployment of community e-centres

  • instances of public feedback to statements of direction, draft legislation and so on

  • web-sites of Government agencies, particularly if these offer value beyond a public relations image.

In this study, we use the terms "e-Governance" and "e-Government" instead of "on-line governance" and "on-line government" because we are effectively convened with all ICTs, not only application of remote access through telecommunications.

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