Affective commitment refers to the employee’s emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in the organisation (O’Reilly and Chatman -1986). The degree to which an individual is psychologically attached to an organisation through feelings such as Courtesy, Consideration, Forgiveness, Moral Integrity, Empathy, Respect (Jaros et al - 1993). Employees with a strong affective commitment continue with the organisation because they want to.
4.2. Normative Commitment Normative commitment reflects a feeling of obligation to continue employment. Employees with a high level of normative commitment feel that they ought to remain with the organisation (Wiener - 1982). This kind of employee’s behaviour could enhance their commitment level only when the management is ready to offer values such as Development, Initiative, Creativity, Openness, Teamwork, Empowerment, and innovativeness
4.3. Continuance Commitment Continuance Commitment is the desire to remain a member of the organisation (Mayer and Schoorman - 1992). This kind of behaviour could enhance their commitment level only when the management recognizing employees abilities, aptitude and skill, could motivate the employees to work better and better.
Humanity values are the fundamental standards to understand and realize the efficacy of a workforce by providing basic human ideals. These resources absorb an imperative role in creation of admirable exertion among the employees to perform skillfully to enhance their affective commitment level. The diagram is the catalog of its dimensions according to (Jaros et al - 1993).
Diagram 3.Process of Humanity values to achieve enhanced Affective Commitment
Showing of politeness in one's attitude and behavior, a polite speech or action, with the employee could create optimistic environment, which in turn, enhance their commitment.
Showing his kindness towards employee’s expectation, such as work allotment, family problem, leave, and during their personal emergencies, could make the employee delighted and obviously that can improve their work performance which ultimately leads to enhance their commitment.
Forgiveness is the renunciation or cessation of resentment, integration or anger as a result of a perceived offense, disagreement, or mistake. Mustering up genuine compassion for those who have wronged and this understanding may perhaps increase the affection towards their work, which in turn helps excel in their commitment.
Integrity is regarded as the honesty and truthfulness or accuracy of one's actions. If the management is Honest and open to their employees towards their salary, promotion, increment and other benefits, indeed the employees consistently prove their work performance and commitment.
Empathy is the ability to experience and relate to the thoughts, emotions, or experience of others. Empathic emotion plays an important role in creating paternalistic climate of support and protection to promote successful job performance.
Maintaining a comfortable and fair work environment, regardless of an individual's visible differences (such as gender, race, age and physical abilities) or non-visible differences (such as profession, education, family status, religious beliefs, professional skills or sexual orientation), is dedicated to treating all employees with dignity and respect.
6. DIMENSIONS OF VISION VALUES
Vision value is the key components of 'strategic planning' for company’s future, include an understanding of the firm's vision, outlines what the organization wants to be, or how it wants the world in which it operates to be. It should resonate with all members of the organization by providing values related to professional attachment and opportunity for organizational development. The elements of its dimensions scheduled in following depiction according to (Wiener - 1982).
Diagram 4. Process of Vision values to achieve enhanced Normative Commitment
6.1. Employee Development
Employee development as a partnership between an employee and employer, aided by strong support from our Human Resources organization. Career development opportunities and programs that promote personal and professional growth opportunities for them to make a real impact may perhaps increase their commitment level.
Employees are made to feel free to express their views or exercise their initiative. Companies achieve high levels of commitment not by telling employees what or how to think, but by listening to what they have to say.
Creativity refers to the phenomenon whereby a person creates something new (a product, solution, artwork, literary work, joke, etc.) and that will add some kind of value to the company. When employees are given chance to express their new ideas towards their development and company, may perhaps enhance their commitment level.
This is a very essential skill that a leader has to possess and perform. Building trust between the employer and employee will generate mutual commitment and loyalty to leading to sustained effective performance and financial productivity.
6.5. Team Work
Team work can enhance productivity while giving employees a more active role in decision-making and a greater opportunity to be involved in meaningful work. Which in turn can motivate the employees to work with full fledge.
6.6. Empowerment Providing Continuous up gradation on technology, processes, and systems may perhaps empower employees to cope with competition and challenging environment and generate organizational commitment.
This is also most important organizational value, which motivate the employees by providing support for employees to balance the demands of work and home life. The diagram is the catalog of dimensions of this organizational value according to (Mayer and Schoorman - 1992).
Diagram 5. Process of Bottom line values to achieve enhanced Continuance Commitment
7.1. Flexibility A supportive, flexible work environment which gives employees more flexibility and control over their work as an important means to achieve greater work/life balance and enhanced productivity. The elements of this dimension include balancing their responsibilities for work, family, education and other commitments.
7.2. Employee Relationship
Employee Relations involves the commitment between the Company and its Employees to foster a respectful work environment where Employees bring their best to work, are committed, perform at their best levels and act with integrity in all activities. The Company which is committed to maintaining employee/employer relationships that support the Company’s business goals, adhere to fair employment practices, motivate Employees and ensure healthy Employee commitment.
7.3. Job Security Assurance that an employee has about the continuity of gainful employment for his or her work life. People constantly fear their jobs and loose their motivation and commitment to work. Employees need to be reassured that their jobs are secure; otherwise they won’t exert as much effort in achieving organizational objectives.
7.4. Employee Motivation Motivation plays an important role in a healthy employee relationship which leads to an increased level of satisfaction among the employees and in turn an increased productivity. Employee needs to be motivated from time to time to avoid a dip in his performance and for him to remain loyal towards the management. Motivation acts as a catalyst for organization’s success and helps the individuals to remain productive and deliver better results every time.
7.5. Employee Communication Communication is more than a buzz word for successful managers and their organizations. The absence of a coherent communication program can lead to significant increases in stress, perceived uncertainty and absenteeism and significant declines in job satisfaction, commitment and perceptions of the company’s trustworthiness.
7.6. Cooperation Is the process of working or acting together, Roots of human cooperation may be found in empathy, if the employee’s felt that they have treated fairly and adequately by their employer, may perhaps amplify their work performance.
8. CONCEPTUAL MODEL ON ORGANISATIONAL VALUES It is clear from the above discussion that, a company’s health determined through its energized workforce, who not only realize the mission of the organisation but also make strenuous efforts to achieve it. This kind of work environment is possible, only when a company has sturdy organisational values. The below process, help us to understand the contribution of organisational value to employee commitment for organisational development.