Opposition to Tsardom

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The Octobrists

This group dated from the issuing of the Tsar’s manifesto in October 1905 which set up the duma. The Octobrists were moderates who were basically loyal to the government and the Tsar. Their aims were limited. They wished to see the maintenance of the Russian Empire and were content with the establishment of the duma and the concessions contained in the manifesto. Their leading members were Guchkov, a factory owner, and Rodzianko, a large landowner.
The Kadets (KD’s)

The Kadet Party also came into being at the time of the 1905 Revolution. Their full title was the ‘Constitutional Democratic Party’ and they were also known as the Party of the People’s Freedom’. This was the largest group of Liberals in Russia. The Kadets wanted Russia to develop into a constitutional monarchy, in which the powers of the Tsar would be restricted by a democratically elected national assembly. In addition, the Kadets demanded full equality and civil rights for all citizens, the ending of censorship, the abolition of redemption payments on land, the recognition of trade unions and the right to strike and the introduction of universal, free education. Academics were prominent in the party - their leader was Pavel Miliukov, a professor of history. The Kadets became the major opposition voice in the first duma.

  1. What does liberalism mean?

  2. Which of Russia’s social groups were attracted to the ideas of liberalism?

  3. Why were national minorities within the Empire attracted to liberalism?

  4. When were the Octobrists formed?

  5. What was the attitude of the Octobrists towards the Tsar and the government?

  6. What were the aims of the Octobrists?

  7. Who led the Octoberists?

  8. When were the Kadets formed? What other name/s were they known by?

  9. Outline the aims of the Kadets.

  10. Who led the Kadets?

  11. The Kadets played a major role in the first duma. Using your own knowledge explain the effect of this experience upon the strength of their party.


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