Ocean circulation

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Answers to STUDY BREAK Questions

Essentials 5th

Chapter 8


1. What causes the two major types of ocean currents?
Surface currents are wind-driven movements of water at or near the ocean’s surface, and thermohaline currents are the slow deep density-driven currents that affect the vast bulk of seawater beneath the pycnocline.

2. About what percentage of the world ocean is involved in wind-driven surface currents?
About 10% of the water in the world ocean is involved in surface currents driven by wind friction.

3. What is a gyre? How many large gyres exist in the world ocean? Where are they located?
A gyre is a circuit of wind-driven current flow around the periphery of an ocean basin. There are six major gyres in the world ocean: North and South Pacific, North and South Atlantic, Indian Ocean, and the West-Wind Drift (Antarctic Circumpolar Current).

4. Why does seawater in most surface currents flow around the periphery of ocean basins? How is Coriolis effect involved?
Water flow in a gyre is dynamically balanced between the downhill urge of the pressure gradient and the uphill tendency of Coriolis deflection (see again Figure 8.7 and 8.13).

5. Compare and contrast western boundary currents to eastern boundary currents.
Western boundary currents tend to be hot, fast, and deep. Eastern boundary currents are cold, slow, and shallow.

6. Name a western boundary current. An eastern boundary current.
Western boundary currents (at the western edge of an ocean basin) include the Gulf Stream, the Kuroshio Current, and Brazil Current.

Eastern boundary currents (at the eastern edge of an ocean basin) include the California Current, the Canary Current, and the Peru Current.

7. What is meant by “westward intensification?” Why are western boundary currents so fast and deep?
Let’s use a Northern Hemisphere example. Due to the Coriolis effect—which increases as water moves farther from the equator—eastward-moving water on the north side of a gyre is turned sooner and more strongly toward the equator than westward-flowing water at the equator is turned toward the pole. So the peak of the hill described in Figure 8.7 is not in the center of the ocean basin, but closer to its western edge. Its slope is steeper on the western side. If an equal volume of water flows around the gyre, this means the current on the eastern boundary is spread out and slow, and the current on the western boundary is concentrated and rapid.

8. What is the relationship between surface currents and the climate of adjacent continents?
Warm water flows to higher latitudes, transfers heat to the air and cools, moves back to low latitudes, absorbs heat again, and the cycle repeats. The greatest amount of heat transfer occurs at mid-latitudes, where about 10 million billion calories of heat are transferred each second.

9. How does wind blowing over a surface current influence the climate downwind?
If a continent is downwind of a mass of warm water, the atmosphere will transfer some of the heat to the continent. For example, the mild climates of Edinburgh, Dublin, and London are due to eastward-moving air only recently in contact with the relatively warm North Atlantic Current.

10. How can wind-driven horizontal movement of water induce vertical movement in surface water?
The friction of wind blowing from the north along the ocean surface causes the water next to the west coast of a continent to begin moving. Coriolis effect deflects the water to the right (in the Northern Hemisphere), and the resultant Ekman transport moves it offshore. Deep water then rises (moves vertically) to replace the seaward-moving surface water.

11. How is the Coriolis effect involved in equatorial upwelling?
Though the Coriolis effect is weak near the equator (and absent at the equator), water moving in the currents on either side of the equator is deflected slightly poleward and replaced by deeper water (Figure 8.14). Thus, equatorial upwelling occurs in these westward-flowing equatorial surface currents.

12. Which way does wind typically blow over the tropical Pacific? How does this flow change during an El Niño event?
The trade winds blow from the normally high-pressure area over the eastern Pacific (near Central and South America) to the normally stable low-pressure area over the western Pacific (north of Australia). However, for reasons that are still unclear, these pressure areas change places at irregular intervals.

13. What is the Southern Oscillation? How is this related to El Niño?
In the Southern Oscillation, winds across the tropical Pacific reverse direction and blow from west to east—the trade winds weaken or reverse.

14. Why do fisheries on South America’s west coast decline—often dramatically—in El Niño years?
Upwelling within the nutrient-laden Peru Current is responsible for the great biological productivity of the ocean off the coasts of Peru and Chile. Although upwelling may continue during an ENSO event, the source of the upwelled water is nutrient-depleted water in the thickened surface layer approaching from the west (Figure 8.18). When the Peru Current slows and its upwelled water lacks nutrients, fish and seabirds dependent on the abundant life it contains die or migrate elsewhere.

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