Objectives


Emergency: An event in which established emergency organizations (such as the American Red Cross or utilities) need to expand their activities. (Quarantelli



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Emergency: An event in which established emergency organizations (such as the American Red Cross or utilities) need to expand their activities. (Quarantelli 1987, 25.)
Emergency: A sudden and usually unforeseen event that calls for immediate measures to minimize its adverse consequences. (U.N. 1992, 26)
Ask students to name the common variables.

Type of response and organizations. Routine resources and standard operating procedures.


D. Crises

As with other terms, there are different definitions and probably concepts which the students discussed.


Crisis: “Crises involve events and processes that carry severe threat, uncertainty, an unknown outcome, and urgency…Most crises have trigger points so critical as to leave historical marks on nations, groups, and individual lives. Crises are historical points of reference, distinguishing between the past and the present….Crises come in a variety of forms, such as terrorism (New York World Trade Center and Oklahoma bombings), natural disasters (Hurricanes Hugo and Andrew in Florida, the Holland and Bangladesh flood disasters), nuclear plant accidents (Three-Mile Island and Chernobyl), riots (Los Angeles riot and the Paris riot of 1968, or periodic prison riots), business crises, and organizational crises facing life-or-death situations in a time of rapid environmental change….Crises consist of a ‘short chain of events that destroy or drastically weaken’ a condition of equilibrium and the effectiveness of a system or regime within a period of days, weeks, or hours rather than years….Surprises characterize the dynamics of crisis situations…Some crises are processes of events leading to a level of criticality or degree of intensity generally out of control. Crises often have past origins, and diagnosing their original sources can help to understand and manage a particular crisis or lead it to alternative state of condition” (Farazmand 2001, 3-4)
Crisis: “…an event and/or a situation which endangers the established system, the health, life, and property of its members….the term ‘crisis’ is treated as being separated from…other concepts based on the intensity and scope of influence. The terms disaster, hazard, accident, etc., refer to only one event and/or situation, while crisis includes the concepts of natural disasters, man-made/technological disasters, and social disasters.” (Kim and Lee 2001, 502)
Crisis: “A collective crisis can be conceptualized as having three interrelated features: (1) a threat of some kind, involving something that the group values; (2) when the occasion occurs it is relatively unexpected, being abrupt, at least in social time; and (3) the need to collectively react for otherwise the effects are seen as likely to be even more negative if nothing is done sooner or later...” (Quarantelli 1998, 257).
Ask students to name the common variables.

Usually short period of extreme danger. Type of emergency.





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