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L. Pervasive Events
Creeping or pervasive hazards which have no definite beginning or end.

It makes response more difficult.

Examples are drought, heat waves, and cold spells.
M. Short Fuse Events
These hazards can happen without any warnings or relatively short warning periods.

Examples include earthquakes, flash floods, some windstorms, and tornadoes.

Objective 2.3: Hazards and Disaster Researchers
This can be an in-class project (if the classroom has computer and internet access) or an assignment.
The following is a partial list of hazard or disaster researchers. Have the students look up a researcher’s paper and discuss and/or write a description of their selected individual. These names are suggestions. There are several other researchers.
Gilbert White Thomas A. Birkland

Dennis Mileti Brenda D. Phillips

Graham Tobin P.M. Blaikie

Burrell Montz Roger Kasperson

Thomas Drabek Thomas Schmidlin

Russell Dynes David Godschalk

E.L. Quarantelli David Neal

Susan Cutter Walter Peacock

Kathleen Tierney John Pine

Kirsten Dow Robert A. Stallings

William Waugh Jr. Richard Sylves

David McEntire Michael Lindell

Robert Kates Ken Hewitt

Ian Burton Tom Cova

Kai Erickson Jerry Mitchell

Claire Rubin Deborah S. K. Thomas

David Alexander Duane Gill

Earl J. Baker Henry W. Fischer

Steven Picou Eve Gruntfest

Remind students of the readings for the next class and the material that will be discussed. After completing discussion on key concepts, the course will start on Topic II (Natural Hazards). Session 3 deals with Geological Hazards (earthquakes, tsunami, and volcanoes).

Benouar, Djillali, and Ahcene Mimi 2001. “Improving Emergency Management in Algeria.” Paper presented at Global Alliance International Workshop on Disaster Reduction, August 18-22, 2001, Reston, VA.
Blaikie, P., T. Cannon, I. Davis, and Ben Wisner. 1994. At Risk: Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability and Disasters. London: Routledge.
Blanchard, B. Wayne 2006. “Appendix: Select Emergency Management-Related Terms and Definitions.” FEMA Higher Education Project Website. http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/edu/hazdisusems.asp Date accessed February 24, 2009.
Burton, Ian, Robert Kates, and Gilbert White. 1993. The Environment as Hazard (2nd ed.). NY: Guilford Press
Carafano, James Jay. “Improving the National Response to Catastrophic Disaster – Statement Before the Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives.” September 15, 2005.
Cutter, Susan L. 1993. Living With Risk: The Geography of Technological Hazards. London and NY: Edward Arnold.
Cutter, Susan L. 2001. “The Changing Nature of Risks and Hazards.” Chapter 1, in American Hazardscapes: The Regionalization of Hazards and Disasters. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press.
Department of Homeland Security (U.S.). National Infrastructure Protection Plan. Washington, DC: DHS, June 2006.
Deyle, Robert, Steven French, Robert Olshansky, and Robert Paterson. 1998. Hazard Assessment: The Factual Basis for Planning and Mitigation. Chapter five in Cooperating with Nature, edited by Raymond Burby. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, Joseph Henry Press.
Drabek, Thomas. 1996. The Social Dimensions of Disaster (FEMA Emergency Management Higher Education Project College Course Instructor Guide). Emmitsburg, MD: Emergency Management Institute, September. Available at: http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/edu/completeCourses.htm

Drabek, Thomas. 1997. The Social Dimensions of Disaster. The Higher Education Project. Emmitsburg, MD: Emergency Management Institute.
Dymon, Ute J., and Nancy L. Winter. 2005. “Communicating Risk.” Session 2, Hazard Mapping and Modeling ((Draft FEMA Emergency Management Higher Education Project College Course). Emmitsburg, MD: Emergency Management Institute, FEMA/DHS.
Dynes, Russell R. 1998. “Coming to Terms With Community Disaster.” Chapter 11 (pp. 109-126) in What Is A Disaster? E.L. Quarantelli (ed.). London and NY: Routledge.
Erikson, Kai. 1976. Everything In It’s Path: Destruction of Community in the Buffalo Creek Flood. NY: Simon and Schuster.
Farazmand, Ali. 2001. “Introduction – Crisis and Emergency Management.” Chapter 1 in Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management, Ali Farazmand (ed.), New York and Basel, Marcel Dekker, Inc.
FEMA. 1990. Definitions of Terms (Instruction 5000.2). Washington, DC: FEMA, April 4.
FEMA. 1997. Federal Response Plan. Washington, D.C.: FEMA.
FEMA. 1997. Multi Hazard Identification and Assessment. Washington, D.C.: FEMA.
FEMA. 2001 (May). The Disaster Dictionary – Common Terms and Definitions Used in Disaster Operations (9071.1-JA Job Aid). Washington, DC: FEMA.
FEMA. 2004 (January). Building Design for Homeland Security. Emmitsburg, MD: FEMA/DHS, Emergency Management Institute.
GAO (Government Accountability Office. Emergency Preparedness and Response – Some Issues and Challenges Associated with Major Emergency Incidents: Statement of William O. Jenkins, Jr., Director Homeland Security and Justice Issues; Testimony before the Little Hoover Commission, State of California. Washington, DC: GAO (GAO-06-467T), 22 pages, February 23, 2006. Accessed at: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d06467t.pdf

Godschalk, David R. 1991. “Disaster Mitigation and Hazard Management.” Pp. 131-160 in Emergency Management: Principles and Practice for Local Government, Thomas E. Drabek and Gerard J. Hoetmer (eds.), Washington, DC: International City Management Association.
Hill, Arleen A., and Susan L. Cutter. 2001. “Methods for Determining Disaster Proneness.” Chapter 2, in American Hazardscapes: The Regionalization of Hazards and Disasters, Susan L. Cutter (ed.). Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press.
Insurance Services Office, Inc., Property Claim Services Unit. 2000. “Insurers Pay $8.2 Billion in 1999 Catastrophe Claims, Making Last Year the Fifth Worst in Half a Century.” Downloaded from http://www.iso.com/docs/pres151.htm, February 15, 2000.
Kim, Pan Suk, and Jae Eun Lee. 2001. “Emergency Management in Korea: Mourning over Tragic Deaths.” Chapter 31 in Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management, Ali Farazmand (ed.), New York and Basel, Marcel Dekker, Inc.
May, Fred. 2000. Concepts and Terminology: Developing Local Hazard and Risk Analyses. Downloaded from http://www.hazmit.net.SHMO101/HazTerms.htm
McEntire, David. 1999. Sustainability or Invulnerable Development: Justifications for a New Disaster Policy and Paradigm (Doctoral Dissertation). Denver: University of Denver.
McEntire, David A. 2007. Disaster Response and Recovery. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Mileti, Dennis S. Disasters By Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press, 1999.
National Research Council (NRC). 1989. Improving Risk Communication. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Peacock, Walter Gillis, and A. Kathleen Ragsdale. 1997. “Social Systems, Ecological Networks and Disasters.” Chapter 2 (pp. 20-35) in Hurricane Andrew: Ethnicity, Gender, and the Sociology of Disasters, Walter peacock et al. (eds.). London and NY: Routledge.
Pearce, Laurie. 2000. An Integrated Approach For Community Hazard, Impact, Risk and Vulnerability Analysis: HIRV. University of British Columbia Doctoral Dissertation.
Petak, W.J., and Atkisson, A.A. 1982. Natural Hazard Risk Assessment and Public Policy. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Quarantelli, E.L. 1985. “What Is Disaster: The Need for Clarification in Definition and Conceptualization in Research.” Pp. 41-73 in Disasters and Mental Health, Barbara J. Sowder (ed.) Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Mental Health.
Quarantelli, E.L. 1987. “What Should We Study? Questions and Suggestions for Researchers About the Concept of Disasters.” International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters (March), Vol. 5, No. 1, 7-32.
Quarantelli, E.L. 1998. “Epilogue.” Pp. 234-273 in What Is A Disaster? E.L. Quarantelli (ed.). London and NY: Routledge.
Schwab, Jim, with Kenneth C. Topping, Charles C. Eadie, Robert E. Deyle, and Richard A. Smith. 1998. Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction (Planning Advisory Service Report No. 483/484). Chicago, IL and Washington, D.C.: American Planning Association, Planning Advisory Service, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
Sheehan, L. and K. Hewitt. 1969. A Pilot Survey of Global Natural Disasters of the Past Twenty Years. Working Paper No. 11. Boulder, CO: Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado; quoted in Smith 1996, 20. Environmental Hazards—Assessing Risk and Reducing Disaster. 2nd ed. London and New York: Routledge.
Stallings, Robert A. 1998. “Disaster and the Theory of Social Order.” Chapter 12 (pp. 127-145) in What Is A Disaster? E.L. Quarantelli (ed.). London and NY: Routledge.
Tierney, Kathleen, J., Michael K. Lindell, and Ronald W. Perry. 2001. Facing the Unexpected – Disaster Preparedness and Response in the United States. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press.
Tobin, Graham A. and Burrell E. Montz. 1997. Natural Hazards: Explanation and Integration. NY and London, Guilford Press.
United Nations, Department of Humanitarian Affairs. 1992. Internationally Agreed Glossary of Basic Terms Related to Disaster Management. (DNA/93/36). Geneva Switzerland: United Nations.

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