G. Calamities Calamity: “A massive or extreme catastrophic disaster that extends over time and space.” Notes the Black Death of the 14th century as an example. (Drabek 1996, Session 2, p.4)
Show Table 1-1 (McEntire, 2007, p.3)
As with other terms such as disasters and catastrophes, there are several definitions.
Vulnerability: …the characteristics of a person or group in terms of their capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist, and recover from the impact of a natural hazard. It involves a combination of factors that determine the degree to which someone’s life and livelihood is put at risk by a discrete and identifiable event in nature or in society. (Blaikie, Cannon, Davis, and Wisner, 1994, p. 9)
Vulnerability:Vulnerability is the susceptibility of human settlements to the harmful impacts of natural hazards. Impacts of concern include injuries and deaths to human populations; damage to personal property, housing, public facilities, equipment, and infrastructure; lost jobs, business earnings, and tax revenues, as well as indirect losses caused by interruption of business and production; and the public costs of planning, preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery. (Deyle, French, Olshansky, Paterson, 1998, p. 121)
Vulnerability: “A weakness in the design, implementation, or operation of an asset, system, or network that can be exploited by an adversary, or disrupted by a natural hazard or technological failure.” (DHS, NIPP 2006, p. 105)
Vulnerability: “Risk is derived from a factual event or condition and the probability of its occurrence multiplied by the consequences it produces. Vulnerability more often involves a combination of factors tthat make up a system. Infrastructure systems such as power supply or telecommunications or even all of the infrastructures making up a society as a whold can be analyzed for their vulnerability. Vulnerability is a measure of how well a system can cope with or sustain a risk.” (Dymon 2005, p. 8)