Numismata orientaua



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2 NUMISMATA ORIENTAUA.

and a literature of their own, which enabled them to appreciate the elegance of the Sanscrit
language, and to profit by the Aryan learning, of which it was the depositary. At the same
time they imparted, not unacceptably, to their visitors, all that they knew themselves.1 Nor
did the mutual advantage of these new relations end here. Thenceforward Sanscrit continued
to be sedulously cultivated in conjunction with native literature, and in after-ages, when the
existence of the former was imperilled by the wars and political convulsions that overwhelmed
its original seat, it not only found an asylum in the South,2 but was transmitted in its most
approved condition to modern times.3 But although the Dravidians were not the earliest settlers,
and although they have not been exempt, and that in no small degree, from external influences, it
is from them that the civilized part of tho Dakhan derives its characteristic features in language
and institutions. Among the latter may especially be noticed its monetary system, and the coins
in which it is expressed. These occur in great varioty in all parts of the country, according to
tho rango of the dynasties from which they originated. But here a preliminary difficulty
at
#onco presents itself. Tho history of these Powers has never been written. Nor is this all.
In some instances the territorial names of the countries over which they reigned have been
changed and their limits altered. The sites of some of their capitals arc unknown, or are
only recognized by inscriptions (fortunately not rare), and by the coins found among their ruins.
Even these, when discovered, aro too often without legends or dates, by which they can be
assigned to their proper authors. The principal and most important of the states of tho Dakhan
arose in the northern part «if tho country, the physical character of which was favourable to
their territorial aggrandizement. The natural aspects of tho southern districts, on the other
hand, kept tho people.distinct from their northern neighbours, and their relations were confined
in a great measure to transactions among themselves. Tho most romarkable feature of North
Dakhan is an extensive table-land rising on the north from the Valley of tho Tapti, and
bounded on the west by the Sahyadri Mountains. Most of our maps exhibit well-defined ranges

1 That Dravidian literature had boon highly ou Hi. a ted by native better with the rugged tones of tho Turanian dialects than with

studmts at nn early period cannot be disputed. But the pre- the polished utterance of the Aryan tongue*. Dr. Oundert has

fnvnee of European scholars for the study of Sanscrit has kept pointed out (he not incomiderable number of Dravidian roots

itn merits too much in the shade, although it has not been possiblo adopted into Sanscrit, a fact persistently ignored by northern

to ignore them altogether. J*rofftMsor Max Miiller admits that paudits (Zeit. Morg. Gesch. vol. xxiii. p. 517), to which Dr.

there ore grounds for believing that the Taittiriya or Black Cnldwell adds his testimony in the Second Edition of his Com-

Yajur )rcdu hnd been studied and unnotated by the uou-Aryans paiativo Grammar, p. 454, et seq.

of Druvida, from which he draws a gratuitous inference adverso % " It must never be forgotten," Burnell observes, " that under

to its antiquity (Sans. Lit. 2nd ed. p. 334); and he refers to the barbarian kings of Southern India . . , Sanskrit literature

Dr. Weber's notice of a northern pandit quoting with respect flourished more than it perhaps had ever done before, and that

the comments of D&kuhin&lyai on Vedic subjects. According to not only did this foreign civilization reduce Southern India to

Buruell, tho science of grammar (vydkmra$a) was cultivated in order but even extended thence to the Malay Archipelago."

the south from a very early period, n-t as derived from Sanscrit, And he adds, in a note, that the Javanese civilization was derived

hut as communicated from a divine source, in other words, as from Kalinga, and from Southern rather toan Northern India.

Wing of indigenous origin (Aindra Gram., 1876, pp 5, 15, 63; —Preface, Burnell's Vam^abrahmana of the Sama Veda, p. xxxix.
66, 67, etc.). It hns further been held that the Sanscrit phonetic * Several of the standard texts have been edited with much

system was derived (in part at least) from the south, and that the acceptance by southern scholars, and the most approved com men-

original Aryan alphabet was " superseded by tho more exact and tarit* on Jhe Vedas were the work of the celebrated minister of

appropriate system of the south " (E. Thomas, in Prinsep*s Essays, Vijayunagar, tho last notable Hindu kingdom of the south.

vol. ii. p. 50; and Dynasty of the Guptas, p. 31, «©/#), and Burnell's Aindra Gram. 1876, pp. 6, 15, 63,67, etc.; Sir W.

certainly the harsh sounds of the cerebral consonants agree Jones on Vaivaswata, As. Res. vol. i. p. 230, 8vo. edition.


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