Novice training packet

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Novice Trainers: Kenny Lowande

Charlotte Mayfield

Josefine Damgaard
Director of Novice Training: Kevin Guzik

Table of Contents

What is MUN?…………………………………………3

How to prepare for a conference……………………..4

The day of the conference……………………………..5

Resolutions and Amendments…………………………7

Perambulatory Clauses and Phrases………………….9
Sample Resolution and Amendment…………………………………10-11

Impromptu Speaking………………………………………12

Summary Format……………………………………………..14

Position Paper Format……………………………………………15

Conference Evaluation format……………………….16

Glossary of Terms…………………………………….17

What is the U.N.?
The United Nations was first formed in 1945 after WWII to settle any future disputes so that the world could avoid another world war. Its premier feature, the Security Council, was set up as a group of nations that would see to maintaining peace around the world and setting an example for emerging nations. Five permanent members sit in the Security Council; USA, China, UK, France, and Russia. Another ten nations are rotated in and out of the S.C. Since its beginning, the U. N. has grown to 191 member nations today with many different branches that are specialized in maintaining peace, distributing food and medicine, observing nuclear energy usage and much more.

A branch such as WTO (World Trade Organization) focuses mainly on trade around the globe. Countries come together to discuss economic embargoes, trade rights, tariffs, and other matters dealing with global trade. WHO World Health Organization) deals health issues around the world such as eradicating diseases, quarantining infected areas, helping the malnourished and other such problems. Today the U.N. has a countless number of branches that specialize in numerous different topics and work to achieve many different goals.

What is MUN?
MUN, also known as Model United Nations, is a program in which students participate in mock UN meetings. The meetings, or conferences, are divided into committees. Each committee discusses different topics depending on which committee it is (example: WHO would discuss AIDS or diabetes, and OPEC would discuss the oil in the Middle East). Students are assigned a country, which with they have to research the countries views on the topic at hand, and learn everything about that country possible. In the actual committee, delegates debate on the issues being discussed, and try to come to reasonable resolutions to the problem.

In order to get the whole experience of MUN, students dress up in business clothes, bring laptops or briefcases, and get into character. The people that run the committee, and are in charge, are called the Chairs of the committee. They keep track of who has given speeches, comments, and take notice of who needs to speak. The Chairs also give out awards at the end of conferences to the delegates who they think did the best job representing their country.

Within each committee the countries are divided into blocs. The blocs are divided by location on the globe. For example, China, Japan, and Korea would be in an Asian bloc, and France, Germany, and Britain would be in a European bloc. The blocs usually divide the committee according to positions on the topic as well as by location on the globe. These blocs usually get together in a caucus, or a break in debate where you talk openly about the topic at hand with people who agree with your position. In caucus, you and your resolution group begin to write up a resolution, in which you propose ideas for ways to alleviate the problem at hand, or eradicate it all together. After your group writes a resolution, everybody who wrote one, presents each resolution and then the whole committee votes for which one they think would be the most effective for the problem.

MUN is a lot of work, but it is also very rewarding. Not only do you learn about events going on in the world, and get many different views of the problem, but you learn valuable skills as well. You learn great public speaking skills because of how many speeches you will give in one year. Also, you learn how to work with a team. You cannot get through a conference all by yourself, you will not survive, you learn to work together with people you might not normally associate with, and get to know other peoples’ points of view.

How to Prepare For a Conference

I. How To Sign Up For A Conference:

  1. Make sure you listen to announcements on when and where a sign up will take

place. Also be sure to pay attention as to how much each sign up will cost.

B. Have your money ready to pay at the door.

C. Know what committee you want and make sure you have a 2nd choice.

D. When you go in the sign-in room, just simply look for the committee name, and sign your

name on the space provided.

E. Wait a few days for the coordinators to assign you a country to represent.

II. How to research for a conference:

A. Any source is good for getting info. These include: Internet, Books, Magazines, Encyclopedias

B. Always cite your sources

C. Don’t plagiarize

D. Use the conference website as a guide. Most likely a list of helpful sites will be available for you to use.

III. Summaries (refer to page 15 for an example and format)

  1. Always do your summaries before your position paper. It’s hard to believe, but research often helps when writing papers…

  2. Highlight your articles-- It helps to print or photo copy the sources first and highlight them before writing the actual summary.

    1. Use Internet sources, newspapers, books, magazines etc.

  3. Attach articles to your summaries

  4. Write in either bullet point or paragraph form.

    1. Bullet points- at least 6 bullets

    2. Paragraph- at least 10 sentences.

  5. Do not copy text! Write in your own words. You may add a line or a point from the text but it must be in quotations and cited.

  6. You must include one primary source per topic: resolution, press release etc.

  7. Each summary must include a heading that includes the date written, title of article, and web address/newspaper/magazine used.

  8. You must have 5 summaries per topic.

IV. Position Paper Format (See page 16 for format)

A. Make sure you answer all the basic questions that the committee requires you to answer within your position paper

B. Have the following sections within your paper:

1. Background of Topic

2. UN Involvement (Past UN Actions)

3. Country Policy/Possible Solutions

a. Make sure this is the longest section in your paper

V. What to Bring/What Not to Bring

A. What to Bring: Briefcase/purse/backpack, Position Papers/Summaries, Novice packet, Clipboard, Pens/Pencils, Notecards/ notepad, Highlighter, Money for snacks, Laptops

B. What Not to Bring: Cell Phones (unless it can be turned off), iPods/ GameBoy, Weapons, Anything else distracting (Playing cards, etc.)

Remember before each conference you will need summaries, a position paper (2 copies).

The Day of the Conference
I. Roll Call

    1. This is where the chair asks which countries are present

    2. Respond present or present and voting

      1. If you are present and voting, you are going to vote on every resolution and cannot abstain

    3. This is also where you receive your placard and credentials

II. Opening Speakers list

    1. This is where a delegate motions to open a speakers list in order to set up an order for speaking

      1. The person to motion may request to be first on the speakers list

III. Speeches

    1. Speeches serve as a forum for debate

    2. General debate

      1. Speeches include background on the topic and UN involvement

    3. Substantive debate

      1. Speeches include country policy and possible solutions

IV. Comments

    1. An argument or fact brought up after each speech

    2. Typically, there are between one and three comments, and there may be a motion to remove all comments if preferred

V. Caucusing

    1. The purpose of a caucus is to present country policy to other delegates

    2. A caucus consists of delegates forming blocs, or groups, of delegates to begin writing resolutions for the topic

    3. Caucuses are generally ten to fifteen minutes long

VI. Bloc positions

    1. A bloc is a group of nations that have common interests whether they are economic, defense, ethnicity, etc. Oil-producing countries are an example of an economic bloc. Canada, Mexico and the United States are in NAFTA, a small, three-country economic bloc. Sometimes, a nation may straddle more than one bloc.

      Where a single country may be at a disadvantage in a committee, particularly when pitted against powers like the United States and China, a well-organized bloc of countries has great power in decision-making and negotiation. Often, an effective bloc will ultimately help defeat or pass important resolutions. It is important to quickly get your bloc established and to try to play a leadership role in the process. Becoming spokesperson for a bloc is a definite advantage.

      During a MUN simulation, delegates or the chairperson will ask for caucus time to work in a bloc, draft a working paper, develop a resolution, etc. This is prime time to display your leadership skills that will be surely noticed by the judges.

Caucusing in blocs or in mixed groups of countries will be orderly or chaotic depending upon the skill levels of the delegates. At the beginning, there is often a great deal of shouting and jostling for position. If you can insure that everyone may be heard, your leadership will be recognized. Suggest that everyone sit in a circle to be seen and heard. Or stand on a chair and call your bloc there. Or organize your bloc against a wall, facing you

VII. Voting Bloc

Bloc examples

African Bloc

Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan

Arab Bloc

Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria

Asian Bloc

Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Iran, Myanmar, Pakistan, the Philippines,

South Korea, Thailand

Eastern Bloc

Albania, Bosnia, Croatia, Hungary, Poland, the Russian Federation, the Ukraine

Latin American Bloc

Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Mexico,

Nicaragua, Peru, Venezuela

Western Bloc

Australia, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan,

New Zealand, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States

Resolutions and Amendments

Ultimately, the goal of any committee is to write and adopt well-composed and comprehensive substantive proposals—that is, resolutions and amendments. It is the process of drafting these proposals that unite speaking, caucusing, and diplomacy all into one expression of the ideas and solutions by a group of member-states. In what will follow we will be examining the structure of resolutions and amendments and briefly discuss important strategies that you should know as a delegate in writing these substantive proposals.

Sponsorship and Signatories

Each resolution or amendment has sponsors. Sponsors of resolutions are the member-states who devote time, energy and input to a resolution. They are the creators, writers, and advocates of the substantive ideas presented within the document. Sponsorship can be withdrawn from the resolution up until amendments have been passed altering the resolution. Each resolution or amendment also needs a certain number of signatories in order to be official. The number of signatories needed varies with the size and type of committee and your chair will inform you of this number at the beginning of the conference. Signatories, simply signatures from different nation-states, indicate interest in the resolution, but do not indicate any support or opposition for its substantive ideas. Signing a resolution is simply a way of indicating that you consider it worth discussing. Sponsors may not sign their own resolutions, and signatories cannot be withdrawn after the resolution has been submitted.


A resolution is a written proposal that deals with the issues being entertained by the committee. The committee votes on resolutions and those that pass become international law.
1.Resolution Structure Resolutions are divided into three parts:

(1) Header,

-The Header provides the basic information mainly for administrative purposes. It lists the topic, the committee and the sponsors at the beginning of the resolution, usually placed in the upper left corner of the document.

(2) Perambulatory clauses

- These clauses introduce the problem at hand, provide some background information, and in general indicate the attitude of the resolution. Citing important documents or events as background knowledge can be impressive, but don’t overload with perambulatory clauses, as they can crash a good resolution before it gets off the ground. These cannot be changed by amendments. Begin perambulatory clauses with an underlined word, such as Reminding, Reiterating or Emphasizing, and end each clause with a comma.

(3) Operative clauses.

-The operative clauses are the meat of the resolution. They outline the ideas and proposed actions of the resolution. They should lay out a specific solution or set of solutions to the problem at hand. Good operative clauses are original, innovative, on policy, and both economically and politically feasible. Cost considerations are also dealt with in the operative clauses. These are the clauses that can be altered by amendments.

Each operative clause should be numbered. Begin each operative clause with an underlined word or phrase, such as Calls for, Strongly encourages, or Establishes, and end each clause with a semi-colon.
2. Tips for Writing Resolutions

With the content of your resolution you want to exhibit the following characteristics:

Feasibility: The most fundamental aspect of a resolution is its ability to be implemented and accomplish some goal or serve some function. In order to do this, a resolution must be realistic and in conformity to the policies and the perspectives of the international community.

Originality: Several resolutions which say the same exact thing or very similar things do not add anything to the quality of debate in committee. Indeed, resolutions ought to contain unique ideas and solutions so that there can be something to debate about. Any resolutions that say the same or similar things should be combined.

Creativity: When formulating the operatives in a resolution don’t simply use what the UN or your country has done in the past as your guide. Come up with a course of action that is the result of critical thinking and analysis not regurgitation. Working with other member states, you should be reevaluating past UN actions and proposing solutions

which improve upon those past actions. Although you should aim for feasibility in your resolution, this does not mean that you cannot be innovative as well.

3. How to Submit a Resolution

Once the resolution is complete, rise under powers of Delegations to submit a substantive proposal. This can be done at any time except during voting bloc. The chair will then ask the key sponsors to approach for the submission, at which point the resolution will be numbered if it is deemed acceptable by the chair.

General vs. Substantive

General Debate

Substantive Debate

Country’s positions and policies

Background information on topic

Give country’s perspective

Familiarize with others’ policies

Become more specific in debate

Possible solutions and proposals

Begin to Formulate ideas for resolutions

Preambulatory Phrases



Having devoted


Alarmed by





Expressing its

Having examined


Aware of


Having studied



Expressing its

Having heard


Bearing in mind


Having received




Keeping in mind

Taking into


Fully aware

Noting with regret



Fully alarmed

Noting with

Taking into


Fully believing



Deeply concerned

Further deploring

Noting with deep

Taking note

Deeply conscious

Further recalling


Viewing with

Deeply convinced

Guided by

Noting further


Deeply disturbed

Having adopted

Noting with


Deeply regretting

Having considered



Having considered



Operative Phrases



Further invites



Draws the

Further proclaims




Further reminds





Solemnly affirms





Calls upon


Further resolves




Further requests



Expresses its

Have resolved





Takes note of


Expresses its









Example Resolution

Example Amendment

Impromptu Speaking

I. Why is impromptu speaking important?

A. General and Substantive Debate

B. Comments

C. Speech Contests

D. Current Events

E. Presentations

F. Public Speaking is a Life Skill

II. The Keys to a successful impromptu speech are as follows:

A. Confidence

B. General direction of your speech

C. Knowledge of the fundamentals of public speaking

III. About your voice:

A. Dynamics

B. Tone

C. Inflection

D. Presence

E. Projection

F. Confidence

G. Conviction

IV. Primary objective:

A. Convey your message clearly, articulately, and eloquently

B. Create a presence for yourself

C. Command respect from the committee

Here is a list of UN acronyms
Hint: Check the official MUN website at


(UN) Economic & Social Council


European Union


(UN) Food & Agriculture Organisation


(UN) General Assembly


Group of eight leading industrialised nations

Group of 77

Group of developing nations (now over 140)


Inter Agency Committee on Sustainable Development


International Atomic Energy Agency


International Monetary Fund


North Atlantic Treaty Organisation


United Nations Development Programme


United Nations Environment Programme


United Nations Educational, Scientific & Cultural Organization


World Bank


Women's Environment & Development Organisation


World Health Organisation


World Trade Organisation

Summary Format
LHHSMUN requires students to compile research summaries as a representation of the delegates’ hard work and acquired information. It is also a collection of research that will prove to be a quick reference during the days of the actual conference. Every topic must have five summaries with the original article attached.

  • Name

  • Committee


  • Conference

  • Title
ohn Doe

Security Council


Tuberculosis Summaries

  • Summary Title

  • Website Address

  • Date Printed

  1. Title: Tuberculosis Research Center- Epidemiological Research


Date: 8.18.00

Studies on childhood tuberculosis to develop diagnostic criteria and field methodology using simple signs are also in progress. In studies in North Arcot district it was found that despite the introduction of SCC the completion rates with unsupervised chemotherapy were only 40%. More disturbing was the fact that there was high mortality and high rates of resistance. These findings highlight the absolute need for supervision of treatment and introduction of DOTS. Studies are in progress to know the prevalence of HIV infection among patients with tuberculosis, to describe the attack rates of tuberculosis among HIV infected persons, and to study the natural history of dual infection with HIV and tuberculosis. Interim findings had revealed that the prevalence of HIV among tuberculosis patients was around 2% and about 4% of HIV infected individuals developed tuberculosis annually. Mortality in those with dual infection was about 4 times higher than those with HIV alone.

  • Summary1

  1. Title: TB- Prevention and Control


Date: 8.18.00

  • DOTS uses sound technology—the successful components of TB control—and packages it with good management practices for widespread use through the existing primary health care network.

  • Thirty million people could die from TB in the next 10 years.

  • A third of the world's population is infected with the TB bacillus.

  • Someone is infected with tuberculosis every second.

  • About 8 million people became sick with TB in 1998.

  • TB is a leading killer of women.

  • Every country is vulnerable to the consequences of poor TB treatment practices in other countries.

1 Two kinds of summaries are allowed. One in paragraph form summarizing the important facts that is most essential to your working paper. Usually these kinds of summaries are a paragraph long, which is about 7 or more lines. The other kind of summary allowed is in bullet form. Please include only the most essential points made in your research! For the convenience of all MUN teachers, please follow this rubric exactly!

Position Paper Format


The papers MUST be TYPED and follow the format below. No more than 7 double spaced pages.




1. Official name of country

2. Climate (major types of climate, rainfall, vegetation)

3. Map

  a. Location absolute (latitude and longitude) and relative (in relation to physical features and other


  b. Physical features (what would one see in the country in the way of mountains, deserts, plains,

major rivers, coast lines, etc.)

  c. In the map key state the size of the country in square mi/km 


 4. Type of government, names of government officials, and political parties.

 5. Capital

 6. International Organization affiliations

 7. Size of armed forces  


 8. Official language, other languages spoken, ethnic composition and major religions

 9. Population, population growth rate, and population distribution

 10. Major cities

 11. Infant mortality rate and average life expectancy

 12. Teachers and Doctors per population 


 13. GNP or GDP (total and Per Capita)

 14. % of land that is arable used for agriculture

 15. Natural resources

 16. Major agricultural and industrial products

 17. Major exports and imports

 18. Currency (include current exchange rate)

 19. Balance of Trade (include amounts in US current of Total Exports and Imports)

 20. Historical events (Time line format ONLY since 1980)



1. Historical background of the topic

2. Who is directly involved

3. Why is this a problem to the world?


 1. How did the UN get involved?

 2. Organs, committees, agencies or NGOs of the UN that are involved.

 3. UN action: resolutions passed, committees set-up, organizations established, peacekeeping forces,



1. Your country’s involvement with the topic. 

2. Your country’s position on the topic

3. What actions has your country taken to solve the problem in the past (resolutions sponsored, aid sent,

peacekeeping troops sent, etc.).

4. Possible solutions that your country plans to propose

Conference Self-Evaluation Format
Name __________________________________________________________________________________

Conference __________________________________________________________________________________

Committee __________________________________________________________________________________

Country __________________________________________________________________________________

Topic(s) __________________________________________________________________________________
Respond to all five of the following questions. You may write your responses in the form of a log or journal; the style may be informal. Each response should be approximately one to two paragraphs in length. Attention must be paid to detail.
1. What was your first impression of your committee and did this perception change throughout the course of the conference? Why or why not?

2. Comment on the general nature of the committee: caucusing, speeches, comments, resolutions, and resolution writing, etc. Note anything unusual about the committee which you have not witnessed at prior conferences.

3. Explain your process of researching for this conference and any research procedures that you have not used in the past. Comment on the effectiveness of your methods.

4. What seemed to be the characteristics of the delegates who took control during committee and/or were recognized with awards? If you received an award, describe anything you did that may have differed from what you did at previous conferences.

5. What impressed you about your committee and the conference in general that we could use at our Twelfth Annual Conference? What were some deficiencies you saw in committee or at the conference that should be avoided at our conference?

My co-delegate was ______________________________________.


Abstention An official statement of no opinion.

Agenda Topic The issues assigned by the Chair for the committee to address during the

annual session.

Amendment Additions, deletions, and changes in a resolution.

Annex To incorporate into a country the territory of another country.

Armistice A temporary peace agreement.

Autonomy Independence; self-government.

Bilateral Having to do with two parties (versus multilateral having to do with many


Bloc Common interest groups with similar economic, political, and social

perspectives on world issues.

Caucus A break in committee for the purpose of informal debate.

Chair Person in charge of a committee; assisted by Vice-Chairs.

Credentials Identification indicating name, country, and committee.

Delegate A student representative of a member-state.

Delegation The student representatives of a member-state.

Dilatory Causing unnecessary delay or thwarting the positive flow of committee


Diplomatic immunity Special privileges accorded to diplomats and their families and staffs by

international agreement, including freedom from arrest, search, and


Extradition The surrender of a fugitive or prisoner by one state, nation, or legal

authority to another.

Formal speech A speech made by a delegation placed on the Speakers List.

Gavel Used by the Chair during committee and awarded to the best delegation in

the committee.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) The total value of the goods and services produced in a nation during a

specific period of time.

Operative clause Policy portion of resolution.

Page A person in committee who delivers notes.

Peace keeping forces A force sent to maintain, enforce, or intervene to achieve a cessation of

hostilities between opposing armies, countries, or other groups.

Placard Each delegation is given a placard which is used to receive recognition from

the Chair and also for voting.

Preambulatory clause Justifications for action; found in resolutions.

President Person in charge of Security Council or an Ad Hoc committee; assisted by


Protectionism The process of government economic protection for domestic producers

through restrictions on foreign competition.

Rapporteur A representative and honor bestowed on a delegation by the committee to

summarize activities in the General Assembly.

Resolution A formal expression of opinion of a committee on issue confronting the


Rules of Procedure The rules used at a Model UN conference to run committee.

Sanction An action by nations toward another nation. Includes blockades, restrictions

on trade, withholding loans. Intent is to force compliance with international


Secretariat Composed of people who organize and run the Conference. Headed by the

Secretary-General and Undersecretaries-General.

Self-determination The ability for the people of a nation to decide what form of government

they shall have without interference.

Comment Speech immediately following and pertaining directly to a formal speech;

Official Newsletter of the Berkeley Model United Nations Conference

Sovereignty Absolute power or authority of a state against external control.

Speakers List The order in which delegates will speak in formal debate; the list of country

names is kept by the Chair.

Substantive Pertaining to a factual or prescriptive expression of language.

Substantive Debate Primary portion of debate on an agenda item; discussion focuses on general

policy, solutions, resolutions and amendments.

Tariff A schedule of duties (rates or charges) imposed by a government on

imported goods.

Vice-Chairs Assistants to Chairs during Committee.

Voting Bloc Portion of committee devoted to voting on resolutions and amendments.

Yield In a formal speech, time given up by one delegation to another with same

policy on the current topic for the purpose of a statement.


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