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Brazil Says Yes – Generic

Brazil will cooperate with the U.S.

Paulo Sotero, director of the Brazil Institute, writing for the Wilson Institute, November 2012



Both the Brazilian and U.S. governments and the private sector have recognized the importance of constructive engagement between the two economic and political powerhouses. After a period of estrangement caused by foreign policy differences at the end of the Lula da Silva administration, Washington and Brasília kissed and made up right before Rousseff ’s inauguration in January 2011. Since then, the two capitals have launched an array of bilateral and global initiatives and intensified the frequency of their mid- and high level meetings. Whereas previous conversations between Brazilian and U.S. policymakers might have been limited to a few core areas of interest, the dialogue is now all encompassing. Mechanisms are in place for regular ministerial cooperation and consultation, ranging from challenging topics such as trade, finance, and defense, to 21st-century concerns such as cyber security, open government, and innovation in science and technology, to issues that directly affect the average citizen such as education and social policies. People-to people exchanges are on the rise, strengthening and expanding networks, particularly in education and scientific research. Some skeptics view these developments as window dressing and no substitute for concrete agreements on hard issues such as trade and taxation. However, the rapid increase in the breadth and depth of the bilateral dialogue, plus both governments’ efforts to keep the doors open for a more productive and consequential relationship, suggest that, at a minimum, they understand their mutual need, the benefits of working together, and the political risk of not doing so. Brazil’s emergence as a substantive international actor and the country’s rise as the world’s sixth largest economy have introduced new factors in the Brazil-U.S relationship that policymakers in Washington and Brasília cannot afford to ignore. Once the host of numerous multinational companies from the United States and Europe, Brazil is now also home to dozens of Brazilian-controlled multinational enterprises that have dramatically expanded their operations worldwide, particularly in the United States. Some of those enterprises occupy substantial positions as investors in key markets, such as the meat, beer, regional aviation, and special steel industries. The growing presence of Brazilian companies in the United States offers a new perspective on matters such as the negotiation of a tax treaty, which the two countries have talked about for four decades. What was once an issue of interest only for U.S. companies in Brazil is now on the agendas of Brazilian firms operating in U.S. markets. Participants in the 2012 annual meeting of the Brazil- U.S. Business Council, held in October in Brasília, say the political pressure generated by the new reality of Brazilian global companies in the United States has created momentum for the Brazilian Congress to approve a bilateral agreement on the exchange of tax information. That agreement is seen as the first step for a treaty addressing double taxation. Brazil and the United States have also taken on global challenges together, benefiting from Brazil’s ability to wield soft power and newfound status in multilateral forums. The Open Government Initiative, which Brazil and the United States launched in 2011, has attracted more than 40 countries committed to promoting transparency, fighting corruption, and harnessing new technologies to make government more open, effective, and accountable.

Brazil Says Yes – Cuban Affirmatives

Brazil will say yes- they are capable and want to play a mediating role in Latin American affairs

John Lyons and José de Córdoba, Wall Street Journal, February 1, 2012

(“Brazil's President Flexes Clout in Cuba Trip”,, js)

"This is about growing Brazil's soft power on the international scale and raising Brazil's role in the world," said Matthew Taylor, a Brazil specialist at the American University's School of International Service. "Brazil is taking on a bigger role in the hemisphere in terms of aid and finance, and by helping out Cuba they really draw attention to this new role they are playing." Although the U.S. has been the predominant power broker in Latin America since the introduction of the Monroe Doctrine in 1823, experts say the U.S. doesn't oppose Brazil's bid for regional influence. Many analysts say they believe Brazil could become a stabilizing force in a region known for political and economic volatility. In Cuba, for example, Brazil may provide a more moderate alternative to the impoverished island's main economic benefactor, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez. Mr. Chávez, a self-described foe of the U.S., delivers some 100,000 barrels of oil and refined products to Cuba a day in exchange for the services of Cuban doctors for Venezuelans in poor neighborhoods, along with other barter arrangements. Cuba, meanwhile, is desperate for economic lifelines. Raúl Castro, who has taken over the presidency from his ailing brother Fidel, has experimented with limited economic overhauls in order to bring life into a moribund economy, where citizens are still issued ration books that allow them access to some basic foods at subsidized prices. "The more normal Cuba's economic relations are, the easier normalization with the U.S. will be in the future," said Archibald Ritter, an expert on the Cuban economy at Canada's Carleton University. "I would imagine that the U.S. would privately hope that Brazil will play a mediating role in issues that concern us, like human rights," said Cynthia Arnson, the director of the Latin American program at Washington's Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Still, during Tuesday's visit, Ms. Rousseff criticized the existence of the U.S. base at Guantanamo Bay, where terror suspects are held, and the U.S. trade embargo, which she said contributes to poverty on the island. And it is unclear how far Ms. Rousseff might go to nudge Cuba toward a more democratic society. She declined requests for meetings by Cuban dissidents, and has said she won't press the Castro brothers on the island's human-rights record. "Human rights aren't a stone to be thrown from one side to another," she said in Havana on Tuesday. This week, Brazilian Foreign Minister Antonio Patriota said human rights aren't an "emergency" issue in Cuba. Last month, Cuban political prisoner Wilmar Villar died in jail after a 50-day hunger strike. Activists said he was protesting being jailed for taking part in a political demonstration. The Cuban government has said Mr. Villar was a common prisoner and wasn't on a hunger strike when he died of complications from pneumonia. As a young woman, Ms. Rousseff participated in a Marxist guerrilla group in Brazil that was inspired by the Cuban revolution. But the fact that she was jailed and tortured by Brazil's military dictatorship had raised hopes that she might be more sympathetic to the plight of political prisoners than her predecessor, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, who over the years disparaged Cuban hunger strikers. Observers said the case of Yoani Sánchez, a Cuban blogger who criticizes the Castro regime, may offer clues to changes in Brazilian human-rights policy. Brazil granted Ms. Sánchez a visa, and observers said if Cuba allows her to visit, then Ms. Rousseff may be using engagement to yield some human-rights advances. In a blog post on Tuesday, Ms. Sánchez said she hoped Ms. Rousseff would meet with human-rights activists in Cuba and in so doing keep faith with "the many voices of democracy rather than opt for a complicit silence before a dictatorship." For generations, Brazilian leaders have yearned for prominence in foreign affairs commensurate with its population of 190 million and sprawling geography. The country has lobbied, unsuccessfully, for decades for a seat on the United Nations Security Council.

Brazil would say yes – they’ve helped out Cuba economically in the past

EFE, a Spanish international news agency created in 1939 by Spain's former minister of the press and propaganda Ramón Serrano Súñer and Manuel Aznar Zubigaray, 11/2/11 [“Brazil wants to help Cuba update its economic model”,, PS]

Brazil wants to help Cuba "update" its economic model and increase its exports, the Brazilian ambassador said Wednesday at the Havana International Trade Fair.¶ Jose Eduardo Martins confirmed Wednesday that Brazil shares Cuba's "optimism" regarding its economic outlook as a result of the reform plan being pushed by the government of President Raul Castro.¶ "I'm sure that the Brazilian business community is not only coming here to sell, but also to help in the effort of 'updating' the Cuban economic model and in the effort of Cuba to increase its export capacity and reduce imports," Martins said.¶ He spoke during the celebration of the Day of Brazil at the fair, which opened on Monday with the participation of some 1,500 businessmen from 57 countries.¶ The Cuban foreign trade and investment minister, Rodrigo Malmierca, emphasized Wednesday that Brazil and Cuba are promoting projects in the areas of health care, education, computers and agriculture and livestock, among other sectors, and are intending to "promote" the areas of economic complementation."During 2012 we're going to continue deepening and broadening our economic and trade relations toward new strategic objectives, placing emphasis on those that allow Cuba to increase its exports to Brazil and to other countries," Malmierca emphasized.¶ He also mentioned the ongoing construction and investment at the western Cuban port of Mariel as the "signature" project of bilateral economic cooperation.¶ Brazil is set to invest as much as $500 million in expanding the facilities at Mariel with the aim of making it into the island's main trade port.¶ In 2010, the 29 Brazilian firms that participated in the Havana Trade Fair closed 543 contracts valued at $69.1 million.¶ Brazil and Cuba have tightened political and trade relations in recent years, and Latin America's biggest economy has broad programs of cooperation and financing for infrastructure projects on the Communist-ruled island.

Brazil Says Yes – Mexican Affirmatives

Brazil wants to improve its relations with Mexico- they would say yes

United Technologies Corporation, an American multinational conglomerate, 12/19/12

(“Brazil wants closer links with Mexico; Rousseff plans to travel next March”,

Brazilian president Dilma Rousseff is planning to visit Mexico in early 2013 taking advantage of the good chemistry with the new leader Enrique Peña Nieto, and with the purpose of re-launching the deteriorated relations between the two main economies of Latinamerica.¶ And the big excuse for the approach is Petrobras, the Brazilian oil and gas giant with strong private participation and which has been a success in discovering and developing hydrocarbons offshore. This capacity could turn Brazil into one of the world’s leading oil producers and exporters in a few years time.¶ Executives from Mexico’s petroleum giant, Pemex are fascinated with the success of Petrobras as a model for their own country and wish to continue on the first collaboration steps planted by Peña Nieto and Rousseff when the then elected president visited Brazil last September.¶ “Peña Nieto caused a very good impression in Brasilia”, said diplomatic sources and “President Rousseff is travelling to Mexico probably next March” The trip should also help to make the ups and downs relation more fluid, particularly since the early 2012 spat when Brazil imposed import quotas on Mexican manufactured vehicles in an attempt to contain the bilateral trade deficit.¶ Making the relation with Mexico more solid is very attractive for Brazil which has seen its economy stall with an annual growth of 1% in 2012, despite all the stimuli, and a deteriorating relation with Argentina, that has become the main market for Brazilian manufacturing. Brazil is trying to tone down its protectionism with Mexico and last September in private talks the Rousseff administration said it was willing to discuss an expansion of the auto quotas. But there are also practical reasons since the cap was unable to contain the trade deficit with Mexico, which in the first ten months of this year has soared to 1.8bn dollars, particularly attracted by the high selling Mexican Ford Fusion of which President Rousseff has one.¶ The Brazilian auto industry is complaining that in the first seven months of the year the full twelve months Mexican quota has been used up but cars keep coming in despite a 35% tariff.¶ However despite Brazilian optimism things could not be that easy since the Mexican business community is distrustful of Brazil following what happened with the car agreement and also believe it is a “country with a far too closed market”.¶ “I believe it makes sense to have certain scepticism” said trade consultant Luis de la Calle who was one of the negotiators of the free trade treaty with the US and Canada. “The good chemistry is positive because without it you can’t advance but at the end of the day it all comes down to each country’s interests, and what is best both for Brazil and Mexico is a far more open trade relation”.¶ The president of Mexican businesspeople in Brazil, Eduardo Ragasol said that the Peña Nieto/Rousseff relation is full of good signals, such as the approval in record time of the new Mexican woman ambassador in Brazil. “But it’s too early to know when all this will materialize in concrete investments”.¶ Mexican corporations have been far more aggressive: millions of Brazilians use Claro cellular phones and watch television on the NET cable system from Mexican tycoon Carlos Slim; they have breakfast with Bimbo toasts and have soft drinks bottled by Femsa, all Mexican businesses.¶ Brazilians on the other hand have been rather shy but could see a turning point in 2015 when Braskem begins to build a huge petro-chemical complex in Veracruz, with an investment of 3.5 billion dollars.¶ But for bilateral trade to keep advancing with a quality leap, some kind of agreement is needed according to analysts. Given the complexity of the relation cooperation between Petrobras and Pemex could be a starting point.

Brazil Says Yes – Venezuela Affirmatives

Brazil will say yes- they have urged Obama to engage with Cuba and Venezuela

Michael James, ABC news reporter, Mar. 13, 2009

(“Treading Carefully, U.S. Hints It Wants to Engage Cuba, Venezuela”,, js)

The Obama administration appears ready to buck the trend, hinting today it is looking to improve relations with countries like Cuba and Venezuela. During the campaign, Obama repeatedly said he would roll back Bush-era restrictions on family remittances and travel to Cuba. The Brazilian president is expected to urge President Obama to re-engage with Cuba and Venezuela when the two leaders meet at the White House tomorrow. "We are intent on engaging all countries constructively," Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs Thomas Shannon told reporters today when asked about the prospects of deeper engagement with countries in the region at odds with the United States. This will all be on display when President Obama attends the Summit of the Americas in Trinidad and Tobago in April. "We will be going to the summit with an open and constructive attitude," Shannon said, though he noted it’s not only up to Washington. "Ultimately, our willingness to engage constructively with countries around the region depends on a reciprocal willingness on their part to engage with us," he said.

The US should consult with Brazil over Venezuela

Luis Ferreira, staff writer for thinkpolitic, 4-16, 2013, “Post-Chavez Venezuela”,

This brings us to a second area impacted by Chavez’s death – the international arena. Two hours before Chavez’s death was announced, Maduro expelled two U.S. diplomats after accusing them of spying on Venezuela’s military. This could be just a taste of a Maduro administration; a more aggressive foreign policy, especially against the United States, would be a way to maintain the government’s legitimacy. Similarly, support for Cuba, Bolivia, Ecuador, and other friendly regimes would be crucial for the stability of a Maduro administration. Already, governments throughout Latin America (which have all benefited from Venezuelan support) have showed solidarity with the country. This could mean that Maduro would continue Venezuela’s hostile foreign policy. For its part, the United States should tread carefully but, most importantly, consult and work with Venezuela’s neighbors – especially Brazil, the continent’s main regional power, which will have a massive influence on the transition of power in Venezuela.

The US should consult Brazil on Venezuela

Peter Harkin, 2004 {foreign Affairs, Vol. 83, No.1 2004}

Brazil's involvement in Venezuela, on the perspectives, and avoid other hand, is likely to be a more important feature of U.S.-Brazil relations. For the past conflict is critical. year, Brazil has chaired the "friends of Venezuela, "a six-country group that includes the United States and has urged the Venezuelan government and insurgents to resolve their political differences by holding a constitutionally authorized recall vote on President Chavez's term. At the same time, however, Lula has pursued direct negotiations with the Chavez administration, to foster bilateral economic ties and closer integration among South American states Brazil has managed this precarious double act so far, but should the situation in Venezuela deteriorate Brasilia might have difficulty pursuing both tracks at once without alienating Washington.

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