• Cared for automatically without having to exert effort.
• Objectless Stage
Stage 2: Normal Symbiosis (4-5weeks old)
• a dual unity with one common boundary (Mahler, 1967 p. 741)
• infant can recognize the mother’s face and can perceive her pleasure or distress.
• object relation have not yet begun
Stage 3: Separation Individuation (5-36months old)
• achieve sense of individuation
• think of outside world as more dangerous than it was during the first two stages.
• emphasize the transition from vague to clear and precise sense of individual identity
• adult caregiver must satisfy not only the physical needs of the infant but also the psychological needs.
• treats infants as if they have sense of self
• "the center of initiative and recipient of impressions"
• self is also the child's focus of interpersonal relations