Notes on African-American History Since 1900


Why were the years of Harold Washington campaigns and mayoral-ship of Chicago so important?



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Why were the years of Harold Washington campaigns and mayoral-ship of Chicago so important?
Harold Washington’s election as mayor of Chicago heralded the end of a longstanding, well-oiled political machine in Chicago. He opened up the purchasing process in goods and services to women and minorities and increased diversity in hiring practices and ended city patronage. These were all important steps for the inclusion of African Americans in the Chicago political process.
With the successful mayoral campaigns of Harold Washington, African American voters came out to support the candidate. This success led to the increase voter registration and voter turn out for other African American political candidates, such as Jesse Jackson.

The New Federalism of Ronald Reagan and George Bush
The election of Ronald Reagan in 1980 signified the end of an era in economic policy that had begun almost fifty years earlier. The old order, the Rooseveltian order, did not die in its prime. It had, in fact been losing ground, for almost fifteen years. But the coming of Ronald Reagan meant a decisive and total change.
In 1980, most white Americans had become weary of experimenting with the social politics of the 1960’s.
The failure of the Carter years to make a social statement firmly in favor of African Americans opened the way for the ultra right to attack affirmative action which was done with the Bakke vs. US Supreme Court case in 1978. The ultra right blamed Affirmative Action as the reason for the loss of much of “white skinned privilege” jobs among white Americans. The overseas flight of multi national corporations and runaway shops to the sunbelt region of the south were reasons why many of the white working class were losing their jobs. Many became disillusioned and turned their anger the wrong way blaming African-Americans.
Watergate, the Vietnam disaster, and six years of presidential politics by a man (Nixon) Hunter Thompson once said, “was so crooked he had to screw his pants on in the morning” were followed by the innocuous and dry Gerald Ford. Ford was followed by Jimmy Carter, a genuinely brilliant humanitarian. These developments, along with the obvious failure of Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society programs, led to voter apathy; causing one of the farthest “swings right” in American political history. Political, religious, and fiscal conservatives looked for a leader that would place their ideologies in the oval office, and their icon was the former California governor, Ronald Reagan. Reagan was a disciple of “New Federalism,” or a move to remove most power away from the federal government and place it back in the hands of the states. He also believed in draconian budget cuts for most federal programs. except defense, and made it clear no one would be spared from the ax, except business. Reagan saw capitalism as an opportunity to restore economic health back to a s

tagnated U.S. economy. By lowering incentives to invest, Reagan proposed corporate wealth would "trickle down" in the form of new jobs and increased spending.


The New Federalism represented a disbursement of government functions away from federal levels to smaller state and local levels. This was a part of Reaganomics in the mid 1980's. The administrations of Presidents Ronald Reagan and George Bush covered twelve years from 1980 to 1992. It was during the Reagan administration which the New Federalism/Reaganomics began. Reagan and Bush's political pasts had great effects on their policies during their Presidential administration.
Starting in 1969 to 1973 the reign of Richard Nixon will be remembered as one of benign neglect. The reorganization of practices created racist changes whose purposes was to reverse the gains won under the Johnson Administration.
During the administration of President Jimmy Carter, an attempt was made to restore and provide programs that assisted the African American family. The 1970's were characterized by double digit inflation and increasing numbers of unemployed people of all races. While the atmosphere in congress continued to move toward the right there was an increasing awareness of those left behind. Many programs which began with the Kennedy-Johnson years continued. In the 1970's, the government at this time had a role that primarily involved the redistribution of income. Some people were being taxed so that others could receive benefits.
As the 70's continued, the slowing of productivity in the c

ountry was evident. President Reagan was elected in 1980 due to the concern of the public at large.330 People feared that the current domestic spending was beyond control. Many felt the large number of social programs for the poor would continue to drain the country.


Dissatisfaction with the performance of the economy led to a turn of economic policy in a conservative, negative direction. At the same time dissatisfaction with other aspects of the American condition was rising and this pointed to a conservative turn in other non-economic aspects of policy. There was dissatisfaction by the growing military power of the Soviet Union, by the futility of the American response to the invasion of Afghanistan, and most of all, by the humiliation of the year long holding of American hostages in Iran. The resulting rise of nationalist support for a large military buildup and demand for a more assertive posture in world affairs were the acceptance of a position that had, in the previous decade but not always, been a conservative position.
A different strand of conservatism was raised to prominence, if not dominance, by the Reagan victory related to social or private life in America.331
Ronald Reagan's political convictions began in 1946, at the end of Word War II. Reagan took a staunch position during a strike of the Conference of Studio Unions (CSU). Mr. Reagan was a very popular movie actor at this time. He felt very strongly that the unions were trying to gain economic control of the motion picture business to support Communist activities as well as the films themselves for propaganda. Movies were the main entertainment of the days before television. This anti-communistic attitude followed him through his political career.
Reagan's political life began with his involvement with active roles in the Hollywood Independent Citizens Committee of Arts, Science & Professions (HICCASP). He served as an FBI informant. He hardened his views and weighed further into the anti-Communist drive. Reagan told the FBI he was on a secret committee of producers and actors "the purpose of which allegedly is to 'purge' the motion-picture industry of Communist Party members."332
Reagan became a conservative candidate in 1966. Millionaire Republicans urged him to run for governor of California because they felt he was a conservative racist leader, that had credibility and a real influence over people. Although he never held any public office, Reagan won with a landslide victory of nearly a million votes. Governor Brown's administration left the State of California nearly broke. Vowing not to raise taxes, Governor Reagan cut taxes 10%- across the board. This action impacted the hardest on the most needy programs.
When Governor Reagan put William Clark and Edwin Meese in post positions, a more conservative team was created. Reagan and his team managed to win the biggest tax increase in California's history. R

eagan relied heavily on the political team, especially Clark & Meese, who later followed him to the White House.


In 1970, Reagan charged that welfare was causing the government to cut back on other things that people needed "to feed this welfare monster". A reform bill his staff worked out with the legislature limited the eligibility for public assistance, but increased the amount of money paid to welfare recipients.333 These policy changes made it harder for African American minorities to get ‘improved’ welfare system by raising requirements for eligibility beyond their means. In short, more money for less people. By the time Reagan left office, he was spending more on education by cutting extra­curricular activities.
Prior to his campaign, there were many factors that assisted Reagan to emerge as the winner. During the face to face television debates, Reagan was able to seal his image with the public. Throughout the late 70's, he remained in view of the public by giving radio broadcasts, writing in the newspapers and public appearances.334
The public often saw President Carter in less than memorable situations. People only saw Reagan in scenes that inspired only. The use of television was very much a factor in the campaign and Reagan presidency. As a trained and polished actor and politician, Reagan and his staff utilized television to minimize low points and highlight the higher points in his presidency.
Jimmy Carter was hurt most during the campaign as Reagan repeatedly pointed out to the voters how situations could be bettered by his plan. Under the Carter administration they were no better off than they were four years earlier, Reagan said. Reagan received 50.7 percent of the vote and was elected the 40th president of the U.S. in 1980.
Reagan immediately started with a national renewal program. To diminish the dependence on government programs and increase confidence using personal incentives addressing the nation, Reagan promised to reduce the current deficits and balance the budget by 1984. He wanted to accomplish this by reducing the size of government spending. The President promised an "ERA of national renewal".
Arranged by the outgoing Jimmy Carter, Iran freed the hostages after 444 days of captivity. This became a new Reagan symbol. Iran was afraid of Reagan and what he said he would do as

president. Reagan was widely accepted as a extreme racist conservative with a plan for fiscal cutbacks. These plans would later be referred to as "Reaganomics".


The new order had many terms to describe their insidious ways of managing economic affairs. This was part of the set-up that fed into the division of the American people. The new order also caused chaos in the American government, which in turn separated the people by economical status, by religion, and by race.
Plant closing, though they affected everyone, affected African Americans critically. Major plants, those hiring more than a 100 employees, foreclosed in the North many shifting to the Southwest, oversees or relocating in suburban areas where African Americans found employment difficult because of their inaccessibility to transportation.335
Plant closings and relocations were an issue when the shift is from one region of the country to another. They also affect African American youth when there were local shifts from urban to suburban areas. If we take the Chicago greater metropolitan area as a case to point, between 1966 and 1976, the city proper had a net 16 percent decrease of manufacturing firms, while the suburbs experienced a 41 percent growth. This translates directly into African American unemployment. In one study of the effects of a firm’s relocation in Illinois. African American unemployment increased by 25 percent.336
The Reagan package of conservative economic ideas, that he came into office with did not solve the problems of the American people. The Reagan package was an approach with a negative or racist attitude to policies associated with earlier economic programs.
Reagan's policy of less taxes for the rich and big business stimulated a false boom in the economy by giving incentives to big corporate enterprises at the expense of the public. Reagan's economics was the control of the capitalist state to extort maximum profit from the working class through state regulation.
The “Reagan counter-Revolution” continued. A nationwide strike by 11,800 air traffic controllers was crushed and the strikers were fired from their jobs by the President. This action was historically significant due to the fact that in the past the government had always been on the side of the labor unions. Also during this time, some of the largest loss of life in peace time due to numerous aircraft disasters which was connected to the air controllers strike and non-union controllers was taking place. The Reagan government stayed in alliance with big businesses.
President Reagan followed with more cuts across the board. Despite the financial cuts, the deficit continued to grow. The role of the federal government is to manage the capitalist economy to the advantage of the U. S. capitalist ruling class.
Under Reagan government revenues increased, but private income after taxes decreased because of inflation. Government regulations proliferated.
How did Reaganomics effect the African American family life?
Since President Reagan was elected for the first time in 1980, his policies were disadvantageous to the dispossessed, in general, and to African Americans in particular.
Five months into President Reagan's administration, the economy went into a full recession that continued through most of 1982. Through the judicial branch of government, the President made appointments of conservative Justices that would continue during his term of decentralization, and for a while after his term was over. The significance of this action was directed toward the areas of affirmative action. From this point on addressing areas of past discrimination and sexism became extremely difficult. In not only the African-American communities, but other communities as well.337


Also, under the Reagan administration, “The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) labored over schemes to evacuate the urban population of the United States. Lieutenant Colonel North, as the NSC liaison with FEMA, worked diligently on one portion of the plan: the suspension of the constitution and the imposition of martial law. This might also come about in conditions short of nuclear war, for it could be imposed during conditions of violent opposition to a foreign military operation”.338
Reaganomics was a program for weakening and subjugating the working class as a whole, but it impacted the working class unevenly affecting African Americans intensely. Under Reagan there

was a deliberate plan to dismantle the gains won by the civil rights movement and to turn the clock back to the days of total white male supremacy. Strategists for the Reagan administration were fully aware the effect of the plan would be felt by minorities
...the administration calculated that if significant numbers of white workers could be relatively cushioned from the recession's immediate effects, they might be induced to support the very policies and programs designed to weaken the class as a whole.339
While trying to ruin the African American community the Reagan strategy to protect whites to a certain degree worked. Falling for their white skin privilege whites supported Reagan throughout his presidency.
The Reagan administration revived the Nixon-Thurmond southern strategy and brought into office an anti-civil rights attitude that was commonplace in the old South.340
It stands to follow that Reagan very reluctantly signed civil rights statutes.
The climate in America continued to change. A gradual hardening of America toward the poor was taking place. As more of the social service programs were cut or eliminated, the African American community took the brunt of it in unemployment. As the quota system dissolved, job programs and hiring policy of big business were not as monitored by the federal government. Particularly during the 1980’s, large companies found it more profitable to relocate outside of the United States. Again the jobless rates increased as industry moved away.341
For minorities and the poor, industry (the safety net) left poor and struggling communities in ruin. African Americans in particular, being the last to enter the labor force comprised many of the so-called unskilled/some skilled workers. The safety net in many communities was replaced by the "drug industry". Heavy drug use was now introduced by the Reagan administration.342 With this introduction came an increase in gang activity due to the big profits of the drug industry. A steady growth in the drug sub­culture continued as well as a growth in the permanent under class.

Another more troubling perception was created by the media. African-American males were seen as dangerous. This perception continues even today. From this point on, a higher incidence of racist acts were perpetuated against African American people.


The music of the 1980's "rap", made a transition to a more counter-revolutionary flavor known as “gangsta rap". The music, the rhythm and the words were anti-social and anti African-American women which is very disturbing.
Reagan’s Anti-Civil Rights Policy
Reagan's federalist views created many government policies that harmed the ability of the central government to assist in states' matters. Reagan saw all federal economic, judicial, and regulatory statutes as intervention; he ignored many of the reasons these policies were put into place. There has never been debate that the constitution was written to favor the states' ability to govern themselves. As Americans, however, there have always been human rights issues that required federal action.
President Reagan saw much of the legislation in place for civil rights protection unnecessary. Like many federalists, he viewed legislation for continued support of government codes aimed at racial equality as "intrusive." Many of Reagan's actions undertaken during his presidency set back many of the gains made during the 1950's and 1960's.
Reagan's actions on civil rights were usually negative. He disapproved of the Voting Rights act of 1981; he only signed it because Congress made it quite clear that any veto would be defeated. The law was important because it prohibited redistricting of voting districts approved in the original law. The President disapproved of federal busing law enforcement, prosecution of certain fair housing violations, and protection of abortion clinics after a rash of bombings. Reagan also had substantial cuts made in HUD's budget; this made the agency unable to create programs and enforce statutes that were designed to raise housing standards for minorities. Equal opportunity for employment suffered many serious blows during the Reagan presidency. Clarence Thomas, the EEO director, shared the Presidential viewpoint that corporations should not be forced to accept federal standards that forced compliance to hire minority and female workers. All of these standards were lumped together under "quota"; Reagan publicly denounced any system like this as unfair. Even though the Supreme Court, complete with Reagan appointees, disagreed in United States vs. Paradise.343
Federalism never considers that some people, without regulation, take advantage of personal liberty to inhibit the freedom of the less fortunate. Ronald Reagan's "hands off" civil rights policies created a civil rights vacuum, where some genuine progress towards including everyone in the benefits of the U.S. unique system was damaged. Sometimes Reagan used the newly strengthened executive branch to weaken the power of the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court must never be overshadowed in efforts to bring justice to citizens. The Court is the most powerful tool people have for equality, and they must always be able to exercise the powers they possess for the system to work properly. The weakening of the Supreme Court was Ronald Reagan's greatest civil rights failure, and his action affects us still.344
Effect on Minorities and Women
The Reagan economic policies, originally seen by white middle class as the savior from liberalism, were soon exposed as disastrous. The damage was done. The gains in economic freedom by minorities and women were quickly dissolved by a rapidly shrinking job market where white men "took care of each other". This was partially done by making sure the first cuts were minority and female workers. Minority workers were further displaced by the continued closing of the American heavy industrial tradition. Workers returned to inner city neighborhoods to find their safety nets cut by the Reagan budget ax. Towns like Gary, Indiana became genuinely dangerous when the realities of long term unemployment made people desperate. Many of Reagan's economic policies in the long run created much of the racial polarization that we see in today's cities.
It was in 1984 that the Reagan white house began its legal blundering. Many of these second term actions set back the cause of civil rights in America. Unbelievably, Edwin Meese was appointed Attorney General in 1984.
A poor constitutional scholar, a punishment oriented law enforcement agent, an opponent of civil rights programs, and an avis supporter of unconstitutional conservative causes; Meese saw nothing wrong with Christian prayer in school, jailing mass demonstrators, banning abortion, and limiting the freedom of the press.345
Civil rights activists were livid when they saw Reagan's judiciary advisors appoint people like Jefferson to Federal court seats. They were even angrier when, in 1987, Reagan tried to get Judges Robert Bork and Douglas Ginsberg appointed to the Supreme Court. Bork was a genuine conservative punishment freak with a mean anti-civil rights stance; he opposed the Voting Rights act, abortion, and other issues. Ginsberg could not answer for some early decisions, and decided against continuing his nomination.346 It is an interesting footnote to all of this that Ed Meese turned out to be engaged in all sorts of shady and criminal financial dealings.347
Another Education President
Ronald Reagan's federalist ideology continued with his efforts to trim the federal education budget. He considered any form of federal funding federal control, and he insisted that local and state school boards start finding solutions to the "education deficit".
Budget cuts in the education system punished the poorest schools. Private and parochial schools became the option wealthier parents used to avoid the declining quality. Many minority and single parent households were not able to send their children to private schools. This created an inequality between wealthier systems and systems without private or parent support. The quality of education for children that needed the most attention was damaged by these policies. Bias resulted from a policy designed to return independence to local educators.
George Bush from Texas became Ronald Reagan's Vice-Presidential running mate in the 1980 Presidential election.
George Bush was a Naval officer and a decorated hero in World War II. After the war he worked in his family's oil business in Texas. He later became president of Zapata Oil Company and ran it.
In 1967, he became a U.S. Congressman from Texas. During the 1960's, Bush "never became an active or enthusiastic supporter of African American and minority causes. Bush did come out in favor of equal rights. He voted for a law called the Fair Housing Act of 1968, which made it illegal for banks or individuals who were selling or renting housing to discriminate against minorities.”348 There was much opposition in Texas to the Fair Housing Act.
I

n 1970 President Richard Nixon appointed Bush as a representative of the United States to the United Nations. In 1974, President Gerald Ford appointed Bush as ambassador to China. In 1975, President Ford appointed Bush to be the director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). In 1976, President Jimmy Carter replaced him and he was without a job.


In 1979, Bush declared his candidacy as a Presidential c

andidate. He had a tough competition, namely Ronald Reagan. Later Bush withdrew. In 1980, Reagan asked him to be his Vice-Presidential running mate. George Bush was the Vice-President under Ronald Reagan from 1980 to 1988. In 1988, George Bush ran for and was elected President.


Bush formed a drug task force to curb the drug traffic in the U.S. Bush put William Bennet in charge of his new drug policy plan. Bennet was also responsible for helping the President decide on new anti-drug measures, such as bills to be introduced in Congress or confrontations with countries when illegal rugs are produced."349 With Reaganomics many of the African American males who turned to the drug trade, were of focus now again
The targets of these new policies enhanced the prison-industrial complex.
President George Bush wanted to be remembered as "the education President". "The poor quality of the American school system and the falling test scores of American students, meant that education is one of the country's biggest problems." Bush also pushed for more support for the Head Start Program for underprivileged pre-schoolers to get a head start on a good education. His education programs also helped low/no income adults to get into training programs and financial aid to finish or continue their educations.
The Next Education President
George Bush viewed education as one of the issues overlooked by Ronald Reagan. Bush increased support to traditionally colleges and by emphasizing the need for quality fundamental, not fundamentalist, education. Bush did not restore funds cut by the previous administration.
Minorities and women had just started, in the 1980's, to gain the networks and inroads needed to open up the doors of corporate management. Corporate profit harmed these groups significantly by giving them good reason to reduce operating staffs.
Bush’s anti civil rights legacy
President Bush did not implement economic or judicial changes that directly helped minorities or women. His civil rights record, however, shows somewhat of a lack of concern. The most demonstrative of this is his veto of the 1990 civil rights legislation. Bush called this a “quota bill” and refused to sign this or any other piece of legislation that contained percentage figures for minority and female hiring wages. Even though women's groups tried to make it a major issue, Bush never signed this legislation. After much opposition, he did sign the Civil Rights Act of 1991. There was also a battle with Congress in 1991 over the appointment of Clarence Thomas, he was chosen to take Thurgood Marshall's seat on the Supreme Court. After lengthy hearings and investigations into his personal conduct, Thomas was seated on the court. There has been a great deal of controversy surrounding Thomas, with many seeing him as an African-American comprador sell out.
President Bush ran for re-election in 1992, but lost to Bill Clinton from Arkansas.
Reagan throughout his political administrations both in California and the Nation, let his administrative team run the politics. It was his administrators who told him what to say and do as well as to make sure he always looked good. Reagan himself was a long time anti-Communist. He felt that spending for welfare programs where able-bodied people used the system to become unproductive citizens; in other words, he refused to recognize racism and class aggression in creating the poor. His ant-Communism also accounts for the major military build up, which eventually broke down the communistic state of the U.S.S.R.
President Bush carried on the policies of the Reagan administration.
The foundation was set for dismantling progressive American social policy, which still affects African Americans to the present time. A growing dissatisfaction among the American public continued. In particular, the communities that are still being ignored in relation to needs and concerns are not being addressed by the government. The feeling of isolation is almost complete in the African American community.
Reagan-Bush politics and their impact
One must always look at the policies of political leaders as influences on the mood of a nation. Ronald Reagan and George Bush neo-racists began a new trend in treating domestic civil rights issues. They are the first Presidents since the turn of the century that viewed civil rights as the responsibility of local and state government. Their ideology ignored that many state political systems are still supported by large groups of racist voters. Reagan and Bush also made efforts at strengthening the power of the presidency; both Congress and the Supreme Court felt a shift in political influence towards the executive branch. Unfortunately, this branch did not see rights for minorities and women as an issue that had been solved with the original major civil rights l

egislation. Unfortunately, a long history of inequality in dealing with minority and female citizens has left us in a situation where someone must often compensate for earlier policies. Reagan and Bush not only had policies of government noninvolvement, they often passed policy that was biased towards already established economic, political, and societal groups. If groups that wanted the status quo maintained, Reagan and Bush mandated this agenda. Their influence caused a major negative neo-covert racist shift in the advances the U. S. had made previously. Their dilution of the power of the Supreme Court assured that racist federalist ideology be enforced. Obviously, the meaner attitude, America adopted to the underprivileged, minorities and women is their legacy.


Frank Rizzo: The Politics of Repression and Conspiracy
When any election occurs every candidate prepares the best public relations packages to present a “clean” image to the public. This is especially true for the corrupt politicians. They know the “dirty tricks” they have played to get to a position of power. Now they must say, “Hey I have reformed”; I am an okay guy now. These type of politicians have played “dirty tricks’ for years. They represent the interests of a certain conservative sector of the business community.
The Mayoral democratic primary between Frank Rizzo and Wilson Goode represented one of the last classical battles between the forces of democracy and good and the forces of racism and repression.
Your evaluation and vote for either candidate whatever your race, religion or creed may be well determine the fate of America on the local level and also on a much broader level.
Philadelphia has economic, political, and symbolic significance of the mood of the U. S. being it is here that the United States of America was founded. Philadelphia in the last 17 or more years has become known for being the most politically conservative and racist city in the country. Much of Philadelphia’s negative reputation has been associated with the rise of one Frank Rizzo, an aggressive son of a policeman from South Philadelphia.
Rizzo or the “Cisco Kid” as we use to call him back in the 1950’s was noted for beating up gang members in South Philadelphia, though the real gangs, the Italian Mob, was never beaten. While one or two police held the youth, “Cisco” would work the youth over, cursing them out with racist slurs. “Cisco” also had the reputation for having two pearl handle guns which he would threaten to use anytime telling youth to run. This was to keep young African Americans ever fearful. The “Cisco Kid” was more feared than the “Shotgun patrol” (Pennsylvania State Police) who wore black Jack boots and had shotguns in the back of their cars.
Terrorism paid off for “Cisco.” “Cisco” who later became internationally known as “Bozzo,” organized a gang of his own within the Philadelphia Police department. “Cisco” became the notorious powerful Rizzo who rose in reputation in the Philadelphia Police Department as the “tough guy” who cracked heads at a moment’s notice.
From terrorizing teen age youth, Rizzo moved to using excessive terror on any element of the population. Rizzo supporters became known for attacking civil rights demonstrations of the NAACP, CORE, SNCC or any organization that was dedicated to bringing social and economic equality to American Society. By the mid-60’s, Rizzo was the rising mark of the “beast” in Philadelphia. The Philadelphia Police Department with Rizzo as police commissioner became one of the most racist police department and was involved with the SNCC (Student Coordinating Committee) “black power: “dynamite plot” conspiracy in 1966 and the RAM (Revolutionary Action Movement) – Black Guard” assassination plot-riot conspiracies in 1967 which jailed at least 30 African American youth. These conspiracies like those later of the Panthers and MOVE involved pre-dawn and mid-night house raids and mass jailings of the memberships of the human rights organization.
On November 17, 1967 when 4,000 African American high school students demonstrated in front of the board of education demanding the right to be taught African American history, given a quality education and the right to fly the black nation’s flag, the red black and green, Frank Rizzo ordered the police to break up the demonstration. Police charged the demonstrators using the “flying wedge” beating youth with billy clubs. The police used no judgement between boys or girls, and a young 16 year old African American teen age girl was beaten unmercifully to the ground with blood streaming down her face. Youth ran through the streets of Philadelphia in thousands screaming for mercy many bleeding, in absolute terror. This is the character of the dud who is running for mayor of Philadelphia again. Lord help all of us if he wins.

But my friends, the story does not end here; it only begins. Rizzo called together a certain so-called house negro crew and proposed the formation of the Black Coalition in whom many thought was the idea of the Negro leaders was actually part of Rizzo and company plan to co-opt, neutralize and destroy the human rights movement in Philadelphia. From the inside of the Black (“Negro”) coalition came many of the community’s problems today; which are tied indirectly to big business, Mafia, KKK, CIA and the FBI.


The plan which the FBI COINTELPRO documents show is part of the racist conspiracy to divide the African American community, mis-direct and control African American youth and destroy the fiber which enabled the African American community to launch an attack on racism in the 1960’s.
So Rizzo was/is in the same camp of the fascist bureau of investigation (FBI), whose infamous director, Dictator J. Edgar Hoover, (may his soul forever burn in hell), who constantly harassed and possibly was responsible of the assassination of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. In fact, J. Edgar Hoover felt Frank Rizzo was a model to follow and gave him an award as Policeman-Mayor of the year. Funny, isn’t it, that in 1983 you would have Negroes support Rizzo or is it a very sad affair indeed? But, hold on, it is more to come.
In 1968, Rizzo created more RAM-Black Guard house raids rounding up and imprisoning Philadelphia’s young potential local African American leaders. After this, a constant reign of terror was unleashed on the African American community. Innocent citizens were indiscriminately beaten by police who often overreacted in most cases because they were latent with fear of reprisals (retaliation). A politically backward genocidal “black mafia” began to assume power in the African American community. This black mafia seemed to have “diplomatic immunity” (like the South Philadelphia gang) from harassment as Rizzo “bo guarded” his way into becoming Mayor of Philadelphia.
Then came the growth of the Black Panther Party. Like the phoenix rising from the burning ashes of the previously crushed human rights groups, the Panthers dared to struggle and dared to win.
The Philadelphia police department in compliance with Rizzo’s policies and with the racist forces in America raided the Black Panther party headquarters ordering them to strip buck naked on the street while neighbors watched. How inhuman can one get? This was a fascist attempt to humiliate true community servants. What resulted was an unsung war between the Philadelphia Police department and the African American community. Something that could have been avoided if they had “sounder” minds running in the department and the city, the state and the country.
Many African American men are upstate in Pennsylvania’s prisons today because they gallantly attempted to “fight back” against a fascist reign of terror. Many are behind the concrete walls of the penitentiary because their only “crime” was to have a political consciousness (soul) to serve the best interest of the community. They were framed in an atmosphere of total Injustice.
Half a generation of African American men in Philadelphia were “wiped out” by “od’s” and “internal” drug wars which were sanctioned by politics and repression. Under the Rizzo administration, Philadelphia came to the brink of disaster.
In the mid-seventies, African People’s Party members were arrested, houses raided and associates harassed. MOVE members were arrested, beaten, and imprisoned. MOVE’s house was bulldozed to the ground. Delbra Afrika was dragged through rain and mud and viciously beaten and stomped for all the public to see what could happen to anyone who opposed the man posing as God the arch “anti- Christ”-Frank.
Who would dare challenge “the rabid beast?” But hasn’t Rizzo shown he was a nice guy? He ate chicken at Negro churches and listened to Negroes sing. He said he likes Negro spirituals. Rizzo likes to show his Negro male supporters that he likes them by slapping them in the face sometimes even in front of their wives in their own home at their own dinner table. Now that’s a guy who understands human respect and decency. Isn’t it?
Rizzo like any “greedy pig”, took it to the max when he attempted to change the City Charter in 1979 so he could be proclaimed “dictator (de Feuher) of Philadelphia. The African American community said wait a minute, this is the saw that breaks the camels back. Thousands upon thousands of African American people took to the street chanting “we’re fired up, can’t take it no more.” The people of Philadelphia rose up and defeated Rizzo.
Many thought, “hoped,” or prayed Rizzo was dead but “the beast” has raised its ugly head again. Like Reagan, the politics of repression and conspiracy can only lead Philadelphia and the rest of the nation to the road of an updated version of Nazi Germany.350


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