Notes Canada and the us name Per United States of America and Canada

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  • Notes Canada and the US Name_________________Per____

  • United States of America and Canada

  • Human Environment and Interaction

    • St Lawrence Seaway - North America’s most important deep water ship route; joint project between USA and Canada.

    • A system of locks, canals, and channels that allow large ship to travel from central North America, through the Great Lakes, and out to the Atlantic Ocean.

    • Without the locks boats would not have been able to travel over this area because of waterfalls.

  • Railroads

    • Trains were instrumental in settling the western part of the United States of America.

    • To encourage development of rail lines westward, the government offered railroad companies massive land grants and bonds. Railroads received millions of acres of public lands and sold that land to generate money for the construction of the railroads. The federal government gave 134 million acres of land as incentives to the railroads.

  • The Erie Canal 

    • The Erie Canal is a canal in New York that originally ran about 363 miles (584 km) from Albany, New York, on the Hudson River to Buffalo, New York, at Lake Erie. Built to create a navigable water route from New York City and the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes, allowing for grains and meats from the Midwest to get to the east coast via a waterway.

  • Mississippi River

    • At 2,340 miles, the Mississippi River is the second longest river in the United States, behind only the Missouri.  It flows through ten before emptying into the Gulf of Mexico.  Because it flows from the northern United States and the Great Lakes to the south, and connects to the west via the Missouri River, the Mighty Mississippi has been important for transportation, exploration, commerce, and water supply for centuries.

  • Hoover Dam

  • Place

  • Population and Migration

  • Beringia-

    • Land bridge that once connected Siberia and Alaska

  • Population and Migration

    • Columbian Exchange - The exchange of plants, animals, disease, and people (slaves) between the old and new worlds.

  • Population and Migration

    • Melting Pot (USA) vs Mosaic (Canada)

    • Melting pot is much closer to assimilation

    • Mosaic is much closer to multiculturalism

    • Plano, TX –no “towns”

    • Los Angeles- Chinatown, Korea town, Little Italy,

  • Population Geography of Canada

    • About 90% of Canada’s population lives within 100 miles of the US-Canadian border.

    • One-third of Canada’s population lives in Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.

    • Population Geography of USA

      • East Coast-first settled, then West Coast, Middle America.

  • Culture/Government

    • Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a federal state with a democratic parliament.

    • USA-Constitution-based federal republic; strong democratic tradition

  • Culture-People

    • Metis- People of French and Native heritage.

    • Immigrant-someone who comes to a new country. (Push or Pull) Railways (Pull)

    • Refugee- someone forced to flee their country due to war, persecution or violence. (Push)

    • Culture Religion

      • Canada-

        • Catholics 44%

        • Protestants 30%

      • USA-

        • Protestants – 60%

        • Catholics – 26%

  • Culture Language

    • Canada - 2 official languages

    • French and English

  • USA - O official languages. The federal government has never mandated an official language

    • English spoken by 80% of America

    • Spanish spoken by 30% of America

Regions - Canada

  • Maritime Atlantic Provinces- Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edwards Island, and Newfoundland.

  • Core – Quebec and Ontario (Includes French Canada

  • Prairie Provinces – Manitoba,

Saskatchewan, and Alberta

  • Western Province- British Columbia

  • Northern Frontier- Nunavut,

Northwest Territory, Yukon
Maritime or Atlantic Provinces

Atlantic Canada - Easternmost provinces of Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island

  • Cod fishing - mainstay of region’s economy

  • The Grand Banks – Shallow waters in the Atlantic, rich source of fish.

Core Provinces

  • Ontario and Quebec

  • Two-thirds of Canada's population lives in this region.

  • Settled along the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes

  • Ontario - strongly British

  • Quebec - 80% of the population of French origin.

Prairie Provinces

Prairie region - Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta.

  • Wheat, petroleum, and coal

  • Newly discovered “shale oil” reserves may be larger than the Middle East.

  • Major urban centers include Edmonton, Calgary, and Winnipeg.

Western Provinces

Western Frontier - centered in Vancouver, British Columbia, at the mouth of the Fraser River.

  • More than one-half of the province's population lives in the Vancouver area, which is the region's main industrial, administrative, financial, and cultural center.

  • Vancouver is home to the second largest Chinatown in North America.

  • Shares many of the same characteristics at the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.

Major Regions of the United States

  • Northeast

  • Midwest/Rust Belt

  • South

  • Great Plains

  • Western Interior

  • Pacific West

  • Alaska and Hawaii


Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and the District of Columbia

Historical Geography

  • longest history of European settlement, gateway to immigrants.

  • financial and manufacturing hub early in the industrial revolution.

Economic Geography

  • Rural areas are agricultural – primary sector

  • Urban areas are major world economic centers – tertiary, quaternary sectors

Cultural Geography

  • Very diverse, large population – many ethnic groups and languages

  • Usually votes Democrat

Midwest “Why is it called the Rust Belt?”

Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa

Historical Geography

  • Once the “Western Frontier”, hence the name.

  • Breadbasket of the U.S., as this is an agricultural region.

  • Also known as a manufacturing, blue-collar hub of the U.S.

Economic Geography

  • Formerly mining and manufacturing center – primary and secondary sector

  • Decline in recent past, hurt area economy, jobs moved away

Cultural Geography

  • Large cities, declining population - Urban Gentrification in some places. “White Flight” in 1960’s-80’s.

  • Mainly blue collar, rural areas mainly white


North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Arkansas, Virginia, W. Virginia, Kentucky, and Louisiana

Historical Geography

  • settled as an agricultural region, with slavery and cash crops

  • Anglo Protestant plantation farmers were dominant group.

  • Significant in US Civil War (1861-65) and Civil Rights Movement (1960’s)

Economic Geography

Cultural Geography

  • Large African-American population

  • Strongly Christian, usually votes Republican

  • Culture still has connection to Civil War

Great Plains

Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, Oklahoma

Historical Geography

  • Staging point of war between the native people and the American settlers, especially after the 1862 “Homestead Act”.

  • Was also used for cattle grazing and cattle drives, cities founded as railroad hubs for cattle.

Economic Geography

  • Agriculture – farming and cattle, Primary sector

  • Region makes enough food to feed whole world

Cultural Geography

  • People are mainly Anglo, Protestant

  • Mainly rural – lots of small towns, fewer cities

Western Interior States

New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, Texas

Historical Geography

  • Mining towns, Outlaws (Wild West)

  • Cattle/Sheep Grazing, Reservation Lands

  • Las Vegas and Reno- Gambling towns

Cultural Geography

  • Low population density

  • Large Hispanic population, as well as Native Americans

Pacific West States

California, Oregon, Washington

Historical Geography

  • Population grew during the 1840’s “Gold Rush”.

  • Grew again when irrigation and canals brought water to dry areas for farming.

Economic Geography

  • Mostly mining and ranching, primary sectors; tourism, tertiary sectors.

  • High-tech centers in San Francisco, Seattle areas – quaternary sector

  • Entertainment and media in Southern California

Cultural Geography

  • Presently, about one-seventh of the United States population lives in southern California.

  • Rapidly increasing urban population, due to high birth rate and immigration

  • Large Hispanic population

Alaska and Hawaii

Alaska and Hawaii, Pacific Ocean

Historical Geography

  • Alaska was purchased from Russian Empire in 1867, for $7.2 million, became a territory in 1912, and the 49th state of the U.S. in 1959.

  • Hawaii was independent republic from 1894 until 1898, then annexed by USA. Attack on Pearl Harbor by Japan on December 7, 1941. Became a state in 1959.

Economic Geography

  • Tourism and fishing, agriculture in Hawaii

  • Oil, mining, and forestry important in Alaska

Cultural Geography

  • Large populations of Hawaiians, Native Americans, and Asians

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