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MR. DUNN’S WORLD HISTORY CLASS 5/4/2016

NOTES AND OUTLINE



UNIT 1: EUROPE DURING MEDIEVAL TIMES

Chapter 6:



The Byzantine Empire
Standards Used
7.1 Students analyze the causes and effects of the vast expansion and ultimate disintegration of the Roman Empire.
7.1.3 Describe the establishment by Constantine of the new capital in Constantinople and the development of the Byzantine Empire, with an emphasis on the consequences of the development of two distinct European civilizations, Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic, and their two distinct views on church-state relations.

OBJECTIVES OF CH 6

•explain the importance of the city of Constantinople as a trading hub and how it emerged as the capital of the Byzantine Empire.

•describe the importance of the reign of Justinian I and the lasting impact of the new code of laws organized during his reign.



•trace the development of the Eastern Orthodox Church & its relations with the west.
OVERVIEW OF CH 6
You will learn about the rise of the Byzantine Empire and how it developed a separate religious tradition from Western Europe.

In a Visual Discovery activity, students read about and act out images that represent Constantinople, Justinian’s rule, the development of the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the schism between Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox Christians in 1054.

Afterward, they share what they’ve learned by creating real estate advertisements that encourage people to move to Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire.

NOTES CH 6 SEC 6.2 page 62

SEC 6.2 CONSTANTINOPLE

  1. It was located more than 800 mi east - Rome

  2. The site was easy to defend

    • It was a peninsula – surrounded on 3 sides by water

    • It had miles of walls + watchtowers

    • It had a chain across the harbor for protection

  3. Stood at the crossroads bet Europe + Asia

  4. It was fabulously wealthy as a city

    • For +700 yrs was richest + elegant city

    • Traded ivory, silk, furs, perfumes + luxury items through its markets

  5. At its height, was home to @1 million people

  6. The official language was Greek

  7. It was the most advanced city in Europe

    • It had a sewer system

    • Hospitals, homes for elderly, + orphanages

  8. But most people still lived in poverty

    • Unemployed were fed by the government

    • They swept streets + weeded public parks

  9. Chariot races were held in a stadium called the Hippodrome

SEC 6.3 JUSTINIAN I – 527 TO 565

  1. One of greatest emperors of Byzantium

  2. almost lost his life in 532 – hippodrome

  1. He rebuilt the city on an even grander scale:

  • Put huge sums of money into public works:

    • bridges, public bathes, parks, roads, hospitals

  • He also built the magnificent Cathedral: Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom) one of the most famous buildings in the world

  1. He was also a great general and tried to reclaim much of Rome’s lost territory

  • N. Africa, Italy, + southeast Spain

  1. most famous for - a systematic body of law

    • A committee revised thousands of outdated + confusing roman law

    • Made improvements – extending women’s property rights



  1. All was not as great as it seemed

  • He called the emperor “a treacherous enemy, insane for murder and plunder”

  • Throughout Byzantine history, distrust and divisions often plagued the imperial court. Justinian’s court was no exception







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SEC 6.5 CONFLICTS BETWEEN EAST AND WEST

SEC 6.5.1 INTRO

Cultural, political and religious differences created a difference between the 2 parts of the old Roman Empire

The eastern half had many cities, much trade, & great wealth

The western half was mostly rural, agricultural, & poorer

Another difference was the heavy Greek influence in the east, while it was a more Germanic and Frankish in west

Greek was the dominant language of the east and Latin of the west, when the liturgy was said.

Finally, the Popes claimed supreme religious authority over Christians while Emperors and Patriarchs did not

SEC 6.5.2 ICONOCLASM

Many Christians used the images of Jesus, Mary, and the saints in worship and prayer, creating icons

Emperor Leo III banned the use of icons in 730 C.E. which was in place until 843 C.E. many religious objects were destroyed.

SEC 6.5.3 THE CROWNING OF A HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR

The Byzantines had a woman Empress Irene as a leader

The crowning of Charlemagne in 800 C.E. also created a problem for the Byzantine Emperors and Patriarchs

SEC 6.5.4 THE FINAL BREAK
1054 C.E. was the final break, when the Patriarch of Constantinople wanted to assert more control over all Christian churches in the east, and closed all Latin churches

VISUAL EXPERIENCE FOR CHAPTER 6

• Placard 6A:


  • Mary; according to Eastern Orthodox belief, she is the god-bearer.

  • St. Basil; according to Orthodox belief, he promoted charity and reformed the liturgy.

Placard 6B:


  • Icon; many Orthodox Christians believe sacred pictures bring them closer to God. Jesus, or the Pantocrator, holding a gospel and giving a blessing; according to Eastern Orthodox belief, he rules all.

Placard 6C:


  • Mary; according to Eastern Orthodox belief, she is the god-bearer.

  • Emperors Constantine and Justinian; Orthodox Christians during Byzantine times believed that emperors were living representations of God and Jesus.

  • Greek writing; Greek is the language of the Orthodox liturgy.

  • Dome on the church in Justinian’s hands; according to Orthodox belief, it represents heaven.

Placard 6D:


  • Greek prayer book; Greek is the language of the Orthodox liturgy.

  • Richly decorated altar; according to Orthodox belief, these decorations remind worshipers of what it will be like to enter God’s kingdom.

Placard 6E:


  • Jesus; according to Eastern Orthodox belief, he is the ruler of all.

  • Emperors; Orthodox Christians during Byzantine times believed that emperors were living representations of God and Jesus.

  • Greek writing; Greek is the language of the Orthodox liturgy.

Placard 6F:


  • Mary; according to Eastern Orthodox belief, she is the god-bearer.

  • Jesus; according to Eastern Orthodox belief, he is the ruler of all.

  • Brightly colored mural; Orthodox Christians believe sacred pictures help bring them closer to God and remind them of what it will be like to enter God’s kingdom.

Placard 6G:


  • Icon; many Orthodox Christians believe sacred pictures bring them closer to God.

  • St. Cyril; he helped create the Cyrillic alphabet, which allowed scholars to translate the Bible for people in Eastern Europe to read.

Placard 6H:


  • Patriarch; he is a leading member in the Orthodox Church hierarchy.

  • Rich decorations; according to Orthodox belief, such decorations remind worshipers of what God’s kingdom will be like.


GUIDE TO READING NOTES CH 6 PP. 62

6.2 Constantinople P. 32(GREY W/B)
1. Why was Constantinople ideally located to be the capital of the Byzantine Empire?
Constantinople was easy to defend and it lay at the crossroads of many sea and overland trade routes linking east and west.
2. What were some of Constantinople’s main features?
Constantinople was surrounded by water on three sides and fortified by miles of walls with watchtowers and gates. A large chain protected the mouth of its harbor. The city had a sewer system, hospitals, homes for the elderly, and orphanages.
3. What was daily life like in Constantinople?

Life in Constantinople was more advanced than in Western Europe. The city’s language and culture were Greek, but traders and visitors spoke many languages. Most people lived in poverty. Many people attended chariot races. The emperor gave bread to the unemployed, who did public works in exchange.
GUIDE TO READING NOTES CH 6 P. 63

6.3 The Reign of Justinian I P. 33 (GREY W/B)


  1. What event forced Justinian to start rebuilding parts of Constantinople?




  • Large parts of the city were ruined when fighting in the Hippodrome spilled into the streets and escalated into a rebellion.




  1. What were some of the improvements made to Constantinople as a result of Justinian’s public works projects?




  • New bridges, public baths, parks, roads, and hospitals were built. In addition, the Hagia Sophia, a grand cathedral, was built.




  1. How has Justinian’s Code affected the modern world?




  • Justinian’s Code is the basis for many legal codes in the western world.


GUIDE TO READING NOTES CH 6 PP. 64-65

6.4 The Eastern Orthodox Church P. 33 (GREY W/B)

  1. What was the relationship between religion and government in the Byzantine Empire?




  • Religion and government were closely linked.

  • The emperor was believed to be both the head of the government and the living representative of Jesus Christ.




  1. How did the Eastern Orthodox Church play a central role in the daily life of Byzantines?




  • Most people attended church regularly and received sacraments at every stage of their lives.

  • Monasteries and convents cared for the poor and sick.


GUIDE TO READING NOTES CH 6 PP. 66-67

6.5 Conflict Between East and West P. 33 (GREY W/B)

  1. Why did Byzantine emperor Leo III forbid the use of icons in 730? How did the pope react to Leo’s order?

  • Leo III believed that people were wrongly worshiping the icons themselves.

  • Pope Gregory III excommunicated the emperor.



  1. What event in 800 increased tensions between the east and west?

  • In 800, Leo crowned Charlemagne, the king of the Franks, as Holy Roman emperor. This outraged the Byzantines, who felt they were the rightful rulers of the Roman Empire.



  1. How did the relationship between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church change in 1054?



  • In 1054 a schism, or formal division, resulted in the Eastern Orthodox Church + the Roman Catholic Church becoming two separate Christian churches.

The timeline challenge questions appear on Timeline Challenge Transparency 1.

  1. The Roman Empire reached its height in 117 C.E. How many years passed before Charlemagne’s scholars began to use lowercase letters instead of just capital letters like the Romans?

    • There were about 683 years between the height of the Roman Empire and the time Charlemagne’s scholars began to use lowercase letters.

1A. Why was the introduction of lowercase letters an important development?

  • Lowercase letters made words easier to read.



  1. How many years were there between William the Conqueror establishing feudalism in England and King John accepting the Magna Carta?

  • There were 149 years between William the Conqueror establishing feudalism in England and King John accepting the Magna Carta.

2.a.How did this act of King John’s affect feudalism in England?

  • King John’s acceptance of the Magna Carta contributed to feudalism’s decline.

  1. How many years were there between the time of the schism and the beginning of the construction of the present-day Chartres Cathedral?

  • There were 140 years between the schism and the beginning of the construction of the present-day Chartres. Cathedrals were the largest buildings in medieval towns

3.a. Why are cathedrals such as Chartres considered a symbol of the Catholic Church’s power in medieval Europe?

  • Cathedrals were the largest buildings in medieval towns. They were centers of spiritual life and political power during the Middle Ages.



  1. How many years were there between the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and the Battle of Crecy during the Hundred Years’ War?

  • There were 870 years between the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the Battle of Crecy.

4.a. How did this war contribute to the decline of feudalism and the Middle Ages in Europe?

  • The Hundred Years’ War changed the nature of warfare by making castles and knights obsolete. It also increased the importance of the common people, both in England and in France.

5. Which event on the timeline do you think was the most significant? Why?

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