Notes and outline



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MR. DUNN’S WORLD HISTORY CLASS 4/19/2016

NOTES AND OUTLINE



UNIT 1: EUROPE DURING MEDIEVAL TIMES

Chapter 3: The Role of the Church in Medieval Europe


Reading for Understanding

Read Section 3.2 and answer the questions below. Then, for Sections 3.3 to 3.8, do the following:

1. Fill in the section title, with the illuminated letter as the first letter.

2. Create a simple drawing below the illuminated letter to represent an important aspect of that topic.



3. Answer the questions for the section.

3.1 INTRODUCTION p. 31


  • Picture is an example of an illuminated manuscript.

    • In medieval Europe, some church officials copied manuscripts such as the Bible, books of prayers and hymns, and writings of the ancient Greeks and Romans and decorated the pages with colorful drawings.

    • The first letter on a page was often large and ornate.

    • You will use “illuminated manuscripts” to record information about the Roman Catholic Church and its influence on life in medieval Europe.



3.2 THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH TAKES SHAPE p. 32


  • Christian religion is one of the most impt legacies of Rome.

    • Christians are followers of Jesus Christ, son of God

    • 1st they were PERSECUTED

    • In 313 emperor Constantine issued a decree allowing freedom of worship

    • In 395 it became official religion of Rome

    • Start of Middle Ages, all Christians were part of Roman Catholic Church

  • Importance of church in early days:

    • One of few ties to more stable times

    • The Church provided leadership & even organized distribution of food

    • Monasteries, or communities of monks provided hospitality

    • Monks also copied and preserved old texts, helping to keep learning alive

3.2.1 the Organization of the Roman Catholic Church P. 32-33


  • Church organization was modeled on the structure of the old Roman Gov.

  • By High Middle Ages there was a *system in which all clergy had a rank:

    1. Pope – Bishop of Rome = supreme head of Roman Catholic Church

    2. Cardinals – were his closest advisors

    3. Archbishops – oversaw large or important areas = archdioceses

    4. Bishops – governed = dioceses (cathedral)

    5. Priest – head of parish with a church

3.2.2 The Increasing Power of the Church P. 33


  • The Church acquired great economic power:

    • By 1050 was the largest landowner

    • Monarchs gave some of the land

    • Some land was taken by force

    • They added to wealth by collecting a tithe = 1/10th of wealth, produce, or labor to help support church

  • The Church also wielded great political power

    • Latin was official language of church

    • Was only common language in Europe

    • Since priests were only ones who could read they kept records + became advisors

  • The Church’s power brought conflict with European Monarchs:

    • Between Pope Gregory VII + Henry IV (Holy Roman Emperor)

    • By 1073 priest could not marry

    • Outlawing the selling of church offices

    • Banned practice of Kings being able to appoint priests, bishops, and heads of monasteries

    • Henry wanted to still make appointments, Gregory said NO!

    • Henry was excommunicated

    • In the end Henry begged for forgiveness and gave the Pope the sole power to appoint

  • Now you will get ready for the SIX STATION TOUR

3.2 The Christian Church Takes Shape
How was the Roman Catholic Church organized during the Middle Ages?
Each local parish was led by a priest. Parishes were groupie together into dioceses, which were led by bishops. Archbishops oversaw groups of dioceses called archdioceses. The pope, or bishop of Rome, was the leader over all.
What role did the church play in government in medieval Europe?
Church officials kept records and acted as advisors to monarchs. The church was the largest landholder and added to its power by collecting taxes.
What was the subject of the conflict between Pope Gregory VII and the Holy Roman emperor, Henry IV?
Gregory banned the practice of kings making appointments to church positions.
GUIDE TO READING NOTES CH 3 P16

Sec 3.3 Sacraments and Salvation

During the Middle Ages, what was the purpose of sacraments, according to the teachings of the church?


The church taught that Christians had to receive sacraments in order to achieve salvation.
What seven sacraments were administered by the church?
The seven sacraments were

baptism,

confirmation,

Eucharist,

matrimony,

Holy orders,

penance,

and extreme unction.

GUIDE TO READING NOTES CH 3 P16
Sec 3.4 Pilgrimages and Crusades
Why did people undertake pilgrimages during the Middle Ages? What were some of the popular destinations of pilgrims?
People went on pilgrimages to show devotion to God, as an act of penance, or to find a cure for an illness. Popular destinations included Jerusalem, Rome, and Canterbury.
What were the Crusades?
The Crusades were military expeditions to the land where Jesus had lived. There purpose was to attempt to take back that land from Muslim control.

GUIDE TO READING NOTES CH 3 P17
Sec 3.5 Art and Architecture
In what ways did the art of medieval Europe reflect the influence of the Roman Catholic Church?
Since most people could not read, art helped them understand Biblical stories.
What were cathedrals? What were some of their key architectural features?
Cathedrals were large churches and the seat of a bishop. Some key features included the nave, transepts, flying buttresses, gargoyles, pillars, and stained glass windows.


GUIDE TO READING NOTES CH 3 P17
Sec 3.6 Education
What role did the Roman Catholic Church play in education during the Middle Ages?
Most schooling took place in monasteries, convents, and cathedrals.

Much time was spent memorizing prayers and passages from the Bible in Latin.
Who was Thomas Aquinas? What did he try to do with theology and ancient philosophy?
Aquinas was an Italian scholar of philosophy and theology. He tried to bring together ancient philosophical ideas about reason and medieval theological beliefs about faith.


GUIDE TO READING NOTES CH 3 P18
Sec 3.7 Holidays
What events did medieval holidays honor?
Medieval holidays honored important events in the life of Jesus, such as his birth and Resurrection. Holidays also honored Christian saints and important religious concepts.
What were some of the ways in which people celebrated holidays?
People celebrated holidays by attending church and with feasts, music, dancing, games, and other forms of entertainment.

GUIDE TO READING NOTES CH 3 P18
Sec 3.8 Monks, Nuns, and Mendicants
What was the monastic life like?
Monks and nuns took vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. They spent their lives in work, study, and prayer, living in separate communities called monasteries and convents.
How were the lives of mendicant friars different from monks?
Friars did not shut themselves off from the rest of the world. They traveled among ordinary people to preach.

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