Directions: 1. Below is a list of the main Enlightenment thinkers and summaries of their main beliefs. Using this list, you must find a contemporary song in which the lyrics match the ideas of one of these thinkers. You must include a copy of the lyrics of the song, the name of the song, and the artist’s name.
2. Then you must explain in at least 2 full pages how the lyrics of the song correspond to the ideas of one of the Enlightenment thinkers.
3. Finally, you will write a short song expressing the main ideas of the philosopher you have chosen. The song must be at least 20 lines long (and it must rhyme). Options: 1. You may choose any contemporary song (or older song) that you like – but the lyrics must be school appropriate
2. You may type or write your explanation and song (typed – double-spaced, written – single-spaced)
3. You will have to do some research to find out exactly what your thinker believes – but you do not need to include a bibliography Grade: 1. 2-page explanation of how the lyrics of the song you have chosen corresponds to the ideas of one of the Enlightenment thinkers – 100 points
2. 20-line original song (that rhymes) that summarizes or explains the ideas of your Enlightenment philosopher – 100 points Due Date: _____________________________________________________
Thomas Hobbes and the nature of society (all men are brutish). Idea that men must forfeit some personal freedoms for the benefit of having a strong ruler who maintains a peaceful and orderly society.
John Locke – Blank slate theory, natural rights and the idea that man has the right to overthrow a ruler who does not protect those rights.
Voltaire – tolerance; freedom of speech and religion.
Montesquieu – separation of government, checks and balances.
Rousseau – Noble Savage, ideas on education, social contract, the General Will.
Adam Smith – capitalism, the invisible hand
Mary Wollstonecraft – women’s rights
Cesare Becarria – opposed the use of torture
NOTEBOOK #9: THE ENLIGHTENMENT
1. Formative Influences on the Enlightenment
Ideas of Newton & Locke
Scientific Revolution convinced natural philosophers (and others) that traditions from ancient & medieval worlds were incorrect & needed to be challenged
1700s, thinkers began to apply this insight to society
Newton also insisted on approaching nature directly (not supernaturally)
His emphasis on concrete experience became important feature of Enlightenment thought
Newton inspired John Locke to explain human psychology in terms of experience
Personality comes from experiences in the external world
This implied that human nature could be changed by changing the physical and social environment
In doing so, he rejected the Christian idea that human beings are permanently flawed by sin
To Locke, people did not have to wait for God to help them – they can help themselves become better
The Ideas of John Locke
Directions: Although people during the Enlightenment agreed on certain natural rights, they worried about how those rights could be protected. Locke and others thought about what life would be like in a situation where there was no government and no laws. They called this situation a state of nature. They were afraid that in a state of nature their rights would be taken away. It's your turn to think like a philosopher. Imagine what life might be like in a state of nature. Think what your classroom might be like if there were no rules. Think what might happen if the teacher didn't have the right to tell anyone what to do. Work together in groups of about five to answer the following questions about such a situation. Then choose a person to explain your answers to the rest of the class. Then compare your answers with John Locke's which follow. Worth 15 points.
What might be the advantages and disadvantages of living in a state of nature?
What might happen to people's rights?
What might life be like for everyone?
Compare your list with John Locke's
You may have seen the same disadvantages in a state of nature that John Locke saw. Locke believed:
The stronger and smarter people might try to take away other people's lives, liberty, or property.
Weaker people might band together and take away the rights of the stronger and smarter people.
People would be unprotected and insecure.
The Example of British Toleration and Political Stability
Newton’s physics & Locke’s psychology created theoretical basis for reformist approach to society
Domestic stability of Great Britain after Revolution of 1688 was an example of a society in which enlightened reforms would help everyone
There was freedom of the press & speech
Parliament had political sovereignty
Army was not too big
Domestic economy had little regulation
All these liberal policies created economic prosperity, political stability, and a loyal population
Many writers of Enlightenment criticized their countries for not having what England had
The Emergence of a Print Culture
In past, print culture impacted the intellectual & religious movements of the Renaissance, Reformation, & Counter-Reformation
1600s, publication world exploded – governments tried to censor it
1700s, amount of printed materials increased throughout Europe (especially Britain)
Prose became as valued as poetry – novels became their own literary genre
Literacy rates rose steadily throughout Europe (especially cities in Western & Central Europe)
Print became main way to communicate information and ideas
End of 1600s, 50% of books published in Paris were religious
Novels started to give people moral & social instruction (like religious books used to)
Many religious-minded individuals criticized the immoral influence of novels
But they couldn’t deny its influence
Books were not cheap in 1700s
Private & public libraries grew – allowed one copy to reach many readers
Authors might publish one thing in many formats
Essays might appear in a newspaper, then journal, and then collected in a book
Coffeehouses became centers to discuss writing & ideas
Lodges of Freemasons were also areas where secular ideas & books could be discussed
More print meant writers could now earn a living at writing
Some writers like Alexander Pope (England) & Voltaire (France) grew wealthy
Status for authors was based on merit – not heredity & patronage (aristocrats)
Successful writers addressed themselves to monarchs, nobles, & upper middle class – and they were read & accepted in these societies
They scraped by, writing for whatever publication would pay them
Many of them got bitter –
They began to write radical ideas – spread these ideas to lower classes
Books & newspapers could have 1000s of readers – they supported writers whose works they bought
Writers then only had to answer to their readers
The result changed the political & cultural climate in Europe
As a result, governments regulated book industry, censored books, confiscated others, & jailed some authors
2. The Philosophes
Who Were the Philosophes?
Wanted to apply reason, criticism, & common sense to all major institutions, economic practices, & religious policies
Most famous were – Voltaire, Montesquieu, Diderot, D’Alembert, Rousseau, Hume, Gibbon, Smith, Lessing, & Kant
A few were university professors –
Not an organized group – disagreed on everything and did not like or respect each other much
Most of philosophes’ readers came from prosperous commercial & professional urban classes
They had enough money to buy & free time to read the philosophes’ work
But their ideas could be used to undermine existing social practices & political structures (aristocracy)
They asked critical questions and supported expansion of trade, improvement of agriculture & transportation, and invention of new machinery
These ideas would shape & define the modern world
Voltaire – First Among the Philosophes
1720s, Voltaire offended French monarch & then some nobles by his poetry & plays
He was arrested & imprisoned twice in the Bastille (Paris)
1726, Voltaire fled to England (to escape an offended aristocrat)
1733, he published Letters on the English –
Book was condemned in Paris – Voltaire regularly harassed as a result
He fled Paris & 1738 published Elements of the Philosophy of Newton
Next three years, Voltaire lived & worked at court of Frederick the Great of Prussia
Then he had to flee to France & eventually settled in Switzerland – but he clashed with Calvinist clergy there
Thereafter, he stayed in Ferney (across French border)
For rest of his life, he used satire & sarcasm against one evil after another in French & European society
1755, huge earthquake hit Portugal – killing 60,000 people
Voltaire wrote pessimistic poem commemorating the event
Critics said he should have written a more optimistic view of life & nature
But he was never convinced that reform (if it came) would be permanent
This pessimism was a broad undercurrent of the Enlightenment
Directions: Below is an excerpt from Voltaire’s most famous work, Candide. As you read, answer the comprehension questions that go along with the reading. Worth 20 points. CHAPTER 4
How Candide Found His Old Master Pangloss Again and What Happened to Him The next day, as Candide was walking out, he met a beggar all covered with scabs, his eyes sunk in his head, the end of his nose eaten off, his mouth drawn on one side, his teeth as black as a cloak, snuffling and coughing most violently, and every time he attempted to spit out dropped a tooth. Candide, divided between compassion and horror, but giving way to the former, bestowed on this shocking figure the two florins which the honest Anabaptist, James, had just before given to him. The specter looked at him very earnestly, shed tears and threw his arms about his neck. Candide started back aghast. "Alas!" said the one wretch to the other, "don't you know dear Pangloss?""What do I hear? Is it you, my dear master! You I behold in this piteous plight? What dreadful misfortune has befallen you? What has made you leave the most magnificent and delightful of all castles? What has become of Miss Cunegund, the mirror of young ladies, and Nature's masterpiece?"
1. Who is the beggar that Candide runs into?
2. What did Candide give to the beggar before he even knew who he was?
"Oh, Lord!" cried Pangloss, "I am so weak I cannot stand," upon which Candide instantly led him to the Anabaptist's stable, and procured him something to eat.As soon as Pangloss had a little refreshed himself, Candide began to repeat his inquiries concerning Miss Cunegund. "She is dead," replied the other."Dead!" cried Candide, and immediately fainted away; his friend restored him by the help of a little bad vinegar, which he found by chance in the stable.Candide opened his eyes, and again repeated: "Dead! is Miss Cunegund dead? Ah, where is the best of worlds now? But of what illness did she die? Was it of grief on seeing her father kick me out of his magnificent castle?"
3. What happened to Miss Cunegund?
4. How does Candide react when he is told the news about Miss Cunegund?
"No," replied Pangloss, "her body was ripped open by the Bulgarian soldiers, after they had subjected her to as much cruelty as a damsel could survive; they knocked the Baron, her father, on the head for attempting to defend her; My Lady, her mother, was cut in pieces; my poor pupil was served just in the same manner as his sister; and as for the castle, they have not left one stone upon another; they have destroyed all the ducks, and sheep, the barns, and the trees; but we have had our revenge, for the Abares have done the very same thing in a neighboring barony, which belonged to a Bulgarian lord."
5. What actually happened to Miss Cunegund?
At hearing this, Candide fainted away a second time, but, not withstanding, having come to himself again, he said all that it became him to say; he inquired into the cause and effect, as well as into the sufficing reason that had reduced Pangloss to so miserable a condition.
6. How does Candide react upon hearing exactly how Miss Cunegund died?
"Alas," replied the preceptor, "it was love; love, the comfort of the human species; love, the preserver of the universe; the soul of all sensible beings; love! tender love!""Alas," cried Candide, "I have had some knowledge of love myself, this sovereign of hearts, this soul of souls; yet it never cost me more than a kiss and twenty kicks on the backside. But how could this beautiful cause produce in you so hideous an effect?"
7. According to Pangloss, what was the cause of his currently miserable state of affairs?
Pangloss made answer in these terms:
"O my dear Candide, you must remember Pacquette, that pretty wench, who waited on our noble Baroness; in her arms I tasted the pleasures of Paradise, which produced these Hell torments with which you see me devoured. She was infected with an ailment, and perhaps has since died of it; she received this present of a learned Franciscan, who derived it from the fountainhead; he was indebted for it to an old countess, who had it of a captain of horse, who had it of a marchioness, who had it of a page, the page had it of a Jesuit, who, during his novitiate, had it in a direct line from one of the fellow adventurers of Christopher Columbus; for my part I shall give it to nobody, I am a dying man."
8. What exactly is wrong with Pangloss?
"O sage Pangloss," cried Candide, "what a strange genealogy is this! Is not the devil the root of it?"
"Not at all," replied the great man, "it was a thing unavoidable, a necessary ingredient in the best of worlds; for if Columbus had not caught in an island in America this disease, which contaminates the source of generation, and frequently impedes propagation itself, and is evidently opposed to the great end of nature, we should have had neither chocolate nor cochineal. It is also to be observed, that, even to the present time, in this continent of ours, this malady, like our religious controversies, is peculiar to ourselves. The Turks, the Indians, the Persians, the Chinese, the Siamese, and the Japanese are entirely unacquainted with it; but there is a sufficing reason for them to know it in a few centuries. In the meantime, it is making prodigious havoc among us, especially in those armies composed of well-disciplined hirelings, who determine the fate of nations; for we may safely affirm, that, when an army of thirty thousand men engages another equal in size, there are about twenty thousand infected with syphilis on each side."
9. Who does Pangloss believe will be most affected by this disease? Why them?