Notebook #8 Overseas Empires ap european History Mr. Konecke Name Period Project #8 – Smugglers Beware

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N O T E B O O K #8

Overseas Empires
AP European History
Mr. Konecke



Project #8 – Smugglers Beware

Introduction: The 1700s has been called the “golden age of smuggling.” Colonial and home markets did not usually mesh, providing an opportunity for smugglers (pirates) to make large amounts of money at the expense of empires.

Directions: 1. You will create a sign, billboard, placard, or whatever you want warning smugglers that their actions will not be tolerated by the colonial governments.

2. Your warning should contain: a written warning against smuggling, the penalties for smuggling, the name of your country’s government and your name, and illustrations meant to gain attention of smugglers and to let them know how serious you are. Do not simply write a statement and a penalty on a piece of paper. You want to get the attention of criminals – what would be the best way to do that?

Options: 1. You may use any appropriate materials to create your warning sign (poster, cardboard, etc.)

2. You can use paint, markers, colored pencils, chalk, or any other materials to create your writing and illustrations

3. The illustrations do not need to be artistic – they just need to be attention-grabbing (if you are not artistic, keep it simple)

4. There is no minimum number of words for your warning or penalties nor is there a minimum number of illustrations – use your judgment – what is the best way to get a smuggler’s attention

Grade: 1. Created a detailed, attention-grabbing warning to smugglers – 25 points

2. Listed accurate and fair punishments for smuggling crimes of the time – 50 points

3. Included the name of your government and your name – 5 points

4. Created detailed, attention-grabbing illustrations to explain your message to pirates – 50 points

5. Warning sign demonstrates significant effort and an attempt at creativity – 20 points
Due Date: _________________________________________________

1. Periods of European Overseas Empires

4 Stages of Contact

  • Since Renaissance, Europe’s contact with rest of world has gone through 4 stages

    • 1.

      • This period ended by end of 1600s

    • 2. Mercantile empires –

      • By 1700s, overseas empires existed to foster trade & commerce

        • As a result, quest for empire led to creation of large navies & series of naval wars – which were connected to wars on continent

        • Anglo-French conflict had theaters of war in Europe, America, West Africa, and India

        • By 1700s, slave population of New World was almost entirely black – imported from Africa or born to slaves

          • Slave-based plantation economy in Americas led to 300 years of European & American involvement in African slave trade

      • During 2nd period, British colonies in North America & Spanish colonies of Mexico & Central America broke free from European control

    • 3. Third stage occurred in 1800s

        • Also included new areas – Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Algeria

      • Reasons for these empires – trade, national honor, spread of Christianity, & military strategy

    • 4. Last period occurred during mid- and late 20th century –

  • For 450 years, Europeans dominated most of rest of world

    • These oppressed peoples were smaller than Europe in size & population

    • Europeans treated them as social, intellectual, and economic inferiors

    • What allowed Europeans to exert their dominance was technological superiority

Technological Superiority

Directions: We will watch a clip from the 1964 film, Zulu. The scene depicts 150 British soldiers defending a mission from 3000 Zulu warriors at the Battle of Rorke’s Drift. After watching the clip, answer the questions that follow. Worth 16 points.

  1. Why do you think the Zulu are chanting as they prepare for battle? What purpose does the chanting serve?

  1. How do the British respond to the Zulu’s chanting? Why do they do this?

  1. How effective is psychological warfare in battle? How important is morale in a battle?

  1. If you were one of only 150 soldiers and you looked across the battlefield at 3000 chanting warriors ready to attack you, how would you feel? What would keep you from running away?

  1. What happens during the battle?

  1. Why were the British so successful against the Zulu?

  1. If guns were the key to British success, why do you think the Zulu and other similar groups did not make their own guns?

  1. Many of the men in the British squad were given the highest military award in Britain for their defense at Rorke’s Drift. Do you think they deserved it or was it an unfair fight? Explain.

2. Mercantile Empires

Who Controlled What?

  • Navies & merchant shipping were keys to mercantile empires

    • Goal –

    • Treaty of Utrecht (1713) established the boundaries of empire during early 1700s

    • Also ruled Florida, Mexico, California, & Southwest in North America

    • Also governed Central America, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, and Dominican Republic

  • British controlled colonies along east coast of North America, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Bermuda, Jamaica, & Barbados

  • French dominated St. Lawrence, Ohio, & Mississippi River valleys

    • And a few trading stations in India & West Africa

  • Dutch controlled Surinam, Cape Colony (South Africa), & trading stations in West Africa, Sri Lanka, & Bengal

    • Also controlled trade with Java in Indonesia

Mercantilist Goals

  • Economic theory behind 18th-century empires was mercantilism

    • Mercantilism

      • Critics complained the system heavily regulated trade & commerce to increase national wealth

      • Economic experts claimed the system was needed for a country to gain favorable trade balance of gold & silver bullion

  • Mercantilists believed only modest economic growth was possible (since scare resources everywhere)

      • You could conquer other countries, expand trading territory, or interfere with trade of other countries

  • Mercantilists’ main concern was always economic well-being of home country

    • Colonies provided markets & resources for industry back home

      • Colonies were always seen as inferior to home country

      • To maintain this system, governments passed navigation laws, tariffs, & prohibitions against trading with other areas

  • By early 1700s, mercantilist ideas did not match reality

    • Colonial & home markets did not mesh

      • Production in North America challenged English manufacturing (English tried to limit American industry)

        • Usually could get goods cheaper that way

        • Traders & merchants from one country always wanted to destroy monopoly of another

The View of Workers

Directions: Read the quote below from a British mercantilist on his ideas about the role of the workers in the mercantile system. Then answer the discussion questions that follow. Worth 10 points.

William Petyt described the workers as:

"capital material… raw and undigested… committed into the hands of supreme authority, in whose prudence and disposition it is to improve, manage, and fashion it to more or less advantage.”

  1. What does Petyt mean when he calls workers “capital material…raw and undigested?”

  2. What is the only goal of the bosses of the workers?

  1. What does Petyt’s quote tell you about how management viewed their workers?

  1. Based on this quote, what do you think managers felt about holidays, vacations, sick time, etc.?

  1. If your boss thought of you as “material…raw and undigested,” how would you feel? What would you tell him/her?

French-British Rivalry

  • In North America, French & British colonists fought with each other constantly

    • Over territory, fishing rights, fur trade, & alliances with Native Americans

    • West Indies had tobacco, cotton, indigo, coffee, and sugar = huge markets for all in Europe

        • Used in coffee, tea, cocoa, candy, fruit, and beer

    • Both Britain & France traded here through chartered companies that had a legal monopoly

      • English –

      • French – Compagnie des Indes

    • Trade in India & Asia was not economically important to the empire

      • But Europeans always wanted to trade with India

  • Two things in mid-1700s changed situation in India

    • 1. Government of several Indian states had decayed

    • 2. Joseph Dupleix (Fr.) & Robert Clive (Br.) saw the weakening power there as opportunity to expand control of their companies

        • Each group wanted to destroy the other

  • Dutch maintained their empire in Indonesia

    • Other European powers did not interfere in that area

3. The Spanish Colonial System

Colonial Government

  • Queen Isabella of Castile had commissioned Columbus in 1492, so technically, the legal link between New World & Spain was crown of Castile

    • Castilian monarch assigned Council of the Indies to run America

      • Council (with the monarch) nominated viceroys of Mexico (New Spain) & Peru

        • V

  • Each of viceroyalties divided into several judicial councils (audiencias)

    • There were also several types of local officers (most important being the corregidores

      • Most of these positions went to people from Spain

Trade Regulation

  • Political structures of colonies were there to support Spanish commercial interests

  • System of trade & bullion fleets maintained Spain’s trade monopoly

    • After selling goods, ships were loaded with silver & gold bullion

      • Spent winter in heavily-fortified Spanish ports & then sailed back to Spain

      • Spanish colonists not allowed to trade with each other

The Spanish Empire

Directions: Look at the map below of the Spanish Empire in the Americas. Then use the map to answer the questions that follow. Worth 12 points.

  1. Name some of the most profitable industries in Brazil at this time?

  1. Where was the Incan Empire primarily located?

  1. Where was the Aztec Empire primarily located?

  1. Who controlled more territory – the Spanish or Portuguese?

  1. The Spanish claimed (at least some of them) that they were bringing civilization and religion to these “backward” lands. Based on the map, what was their real primary concern?

  1. Why do you think the Spanish ended up dominating the Americas instead of the Portuguese?

Colonial Reform Under the Spanish Bourbon Monarchs

  • Early 1700s, big change happened in Spanish colonial system

    • War of Spanish Succession & Treaty of Utrecht replaced Spanish Habsburgs with the Bourbons of France on Spanish throne

        • In doing so, he wanted to improve domestic economy & revive Spanish power in Europe

    • An incident arising from this policy led to war with England 1739

      • Mid-century wars demonstrated vulnerability of Spanish empire to naval attack & economic penetration

  • Charles III attempted to reassert Spain’s control of the empire

    • He gave more power to royal ministers – diminishing power of Council of the Indies & Casa de Contratacion

    • Also opened more ports in South America & Caribbean

  • To make tax collection more efficient (and end bureaucratic corruption), Charles started using intendants

  • Bourbon reforms did help economy

    • Trade expanded & became more varied

  • The reforms, however, also brought empire more fully under direct Spanish control

      • In time, their anger would be a major source of discontent leading to wars of independence in early 1800s

  • Imperial reforms of Charles III were similar to those of British reforms in America after 1763 (which will lead to revolt)

4. Black African Slavery, The Plantation System, and The Atlantic Economy

History of Slavery

    • Before 1700s, there was no moral or religious stigma attached to slave owning or trading

    • Mediterranean area always had slavery

        • After 1453, Ottomans forbid export of white slaves from areas under their control

  • From 1500s on, slave labor became an important social & economic factor

    • Development of plantation economies based on slave labor led to interaction between peoples of Europe & Africa & between Europeans in America & Africa

The African Presence in the Americas

  • When Spanish & Portuguese settled in New World, they had severe labor shortage

    • They (and French & English later) weren’t going to do the work themselves

      • First, they used Native Americans as labor –

        • Labor soon became scarce

        • English colonies in North America turned more slowly to slavery

      • What Africans came into slavery depended on internal African warfare

    • Slavery & slave trade had existed in West Africa for centuries

    • Europeans did not create the slave trade or force themselves into it –

The West Indies, Brazil, and Sugar

    • U.S. claims slave trade began 1619 (arrival of African slaves on Dutch ship in Jamestown)

      • But over a century of slave trading in West Indies & South America had already happened

      • By late 1500s, Africans were large social presence in West Indies & in major cities of South America

    • Slavery continued to expand in Brazil & the Caribbean, however, because of the spreading cultivation of sugar

      • By end of 1600s, Caribbean was world center for sugar production

      • More sugar meant need for more slaves –

        • In Brazil, West Indies, and southern British colonies, slavery & prosperity went hand in hand

    • Early in century, 20,000 new slaves arrived a year in West Indies

    • By 1725, 90% of population of Jamaica consisted of black slaves

    • After mid-century, numbers were even bigger

  • New slaves needed because fertility rate of earlier slaves was low & death rate high (disease, overwork, malnutrition)

      • Brazil faced a similar situation

  • Restocking the slave population meant the slaves in these areas were African-born not persons of African descent

    • New slaves in America would bring their language, culture, ethnic identity into already-existing slave cultures to create a new culture

Slavery and the Transatlantic Economy

  • Different nations dominated the slave trade during different times

    • 16th century –

    • 17th century –

    • Late 17th & 18th centuries –

  • Slavery affected most of the economy of transatlantic world

      • European goods (guns) sent to Africa to be exchanged for slaves

    • Another trade pattern existed between New England & West Indies

      • Fish, rum, lumber from New England traded for sugar

    • During 18th century, political problems in Africa increased supply of slaves

      • Others came from slave raids (rulers needed to sell slaves for money to fund their wars)

The Experience of Slavery

    • During first 400 years of settlement, more black slaves came to New World than did free European settlers

      • Cramped quarters, bad food, disease – many died before reaching destination

      • Always more black men than women transported (hard for Africans to keep families together)

  • In America, slave population divided between new Africans (who just arrived), old Africans (been there for years), and creoles (descendants of earlier generations of slaves)

    • Plantation owners preferred latter 2 groups –

    • Newly-arrived Africans went through process called seasoning

      • Might receive new name, be taught new skills, or learn European language

      • Others went to work in field gangs

        • Sometimes, plantation owners liked buying younger Africans (would get used to work more easily)

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