Northup, Solomon. Twelve Years a slave (New York: Penguin Books, 2012). (461)

Miksch, Karen and David Ghere. “Teaching Japanese-American Incarceration.”

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Miksch, Karen and David Ghere. “Teaching Japanese-American Incarceration.” The History Teacher 37 (2004): 211-227. (16)
The impact of Japanese Internment Camps on the American psyche have been a constant and interesting historical aspect, and no state has faced as much examination of this as California. Critical to the efforts of World War II, California was also necessary to the internment of hundreds of thousands of Japanese American citizens who were sent to the camps after Executive Order 9066 was passed by President Roosevelt in January of 1942. This order “gave the military broad powers to ban any citizen form a fifty- to sixty-mile-wide coastal area stretching from Washington state to California…into southern Arizona”172. Known for the internment of Japanese Americans, the order also asked for the internment of individuals of German and Italia decent also. As Karen Miksch and David Ghere explore in their piece, “the internment of enemy aliens during wartime has been considered a normal practice in the United States” and certainly not a hallmark which the American people should take pride in, but the interment of an entire race by the United States in 1942 stood as something completely different173. The Interment Camps of California, Oregon, and Washington was not forceful against “alien” immigrants, but rather citizens of the United States who were sent away based on their ancestry. Because of Executive Order 9066 the American public is still reeling over this imprisonment of entire populations, and Japanese American decedents are continuing to take rightful action against its government, as with the landmark case “Hohri v. United States” of 1986. The various “constitutional violations, torts, and breach of contract and fiduciary duty” that were sustained by the Japanese American individuals during the implementation of the order, as well as the property loss, damage to belongings, and mental and physical strife post-Executive Order 9066, were case enough for “Hohri v. United States” and other court action lawsuit against the nation in the post-World War II society174. Though the United States has taken minor action in beginning to help Japanese Americans heal from this traumatic event, the Internment Camps at the hands of Executive Order 9066 is critical in the examination of race relations in the United States and in California. Though the present generation is decades away from 1942, and the survivors of the camps are growing older and older every year, there is no guarantee that without the constant reminder of the United States fruitless and mentally violent action against this group there is no way it can happen again.

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