Perakyla, Anssi. “Reliability and Validity in research Based on Tapes and Transcripts.” In Qualitative Research: Theory, Method and Practice, edited byDavid Silverman, 201-217. London: Sage, 1997. (17) Opening her piece by outlining “the specific techniques of securing reliability and validity in different types of qualitative research” Anssi Perakyla contributes a pertinent insight into the dictation of qualitative research by highlighting that these exact techniques are not all alike.136 In separating the aspect of reliability, which is “the degree to which the finding is independent of accidental circumstances of the research”, and validity, focuses on the interpretation of data and any bias therein, Perakyla dissects aspect of qualitative research which can become abused and even ignored.137 Achieving these two criteria of research in tape and transcript based data can be easier than one might think, as far as this piece goes, as working with these mediums take out primary issues that ethnographers often have. By employing the use of tapes and transcripts one can “eliminate…at one stroke many of the problems that ethnographers have with the unspecified accuracy of field notes”.138 Ultimately by choosing these type of tools in research ethnographers eliminate temptation for bias as “tape-recorded data have intrinsic strength in terms of accuracy and public access”.139 Anssi Perakyla does a good job at highlighting the various techniques of making sure tat ones research is reliable and valid, two important aspects of research, not just for the researcher or ethnographer, but for the reader and the audience as well. By creating an article like this Perakyla creates a, semi, tutorial to achieving the points of validity and reliability that one should be aware of in every aspect of research.