Northup, Solomon. Twelve Years a slave (New York: Penguin Books, 2012). (461)

Fleming, Thomas. “Franklin Saves the Peace.”

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Fleming, Thomas. “Franklin Saves the Peace.” American Heritage (2010): 37-38. (2)
Steps leading up to the official formation of the United States has always been well spelled out, with players intact and treaties well defined. Thomas Fleming, in his piece “Franklin Saves the Peace”, highlights one of these players and one of these treaties. Benjamin Franklin, ambassador to France during the American Revolution, created a double life in regards to his relationship with France and the United States. Keeping a cordial relationship with France, Franklin “told Adams and Jay: ‘I am of your opinion and will go on [with the negotiations] without consulting this court’ creating, obviously, a minor conflict when Franklin helped draft a letter which “declared that Americans would insist on a counterclaim for all the damages the British army and navy has inflicted since 1775.31 Upon agreement with the British, Franklin sent the treaty to France asking for a loan and, only after long waiting, received a furious letter on behalf of France “denouncing the Americans’ conduct as a betrayal” (Fleming 2010, 38). Ultimately Franklin sailed to France and returned with the loan as well as the signature of George III – a signature which came to be the “first written acknowledgment of American Independence”.32

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