This means they felt the king should NOT be able to tax the colonists without them having a representative in the British Parliament.
Ex: If you don’t let us have someone from America to speak up for us, then we won’t pay
your silly taxes!
Picture a southern rice farmer who is required by law to sell his crop only to England, even if he might get a higher price elsewhere. Or think of a northern merchant having to pay a new tax on paper—a tax imposed by a distant government in which he had no representation. How do you think they felt about such laws and taxes?
Loyalists: Colonists who supported Great Britain’s policies and British rule
aa) support was very strong
bb) also called Tories
Mainly in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, South Carolina, & Georgia
Patriots: Those who resisted
aa) also called Whigs
bb) treason: betraying your country
cc) were opposed by many Loyalists AND British troops
Americans who believed the colonies had the right to govern themselves
knew the land
Mainly in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Delaware, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Maryland, & Virginia
Paul Revere’s Ride:
An almost full moon cast a pale light over Boston on April 18, 1775.
But the night was anything but quiet.
Mounted on Brown Beauty, one of the fastest horses in Massachusetts, Paul Revere woke up the countryside with alarming news.
British troops stationed in Boston were on the move! They had orders to march to the nearby town of Concord and seize weapons the colonists had stored there.
This was news Patriots had been waiting for.
On hearing Revere’s warning, Patriots around Concord grabbed their muskets and prepared to meet the British troops.
Colonists = had become deeply divided in their loyalty to Great Britain
some colonists tore down a statue of King George
Tories: Filled with dread b/c of deep loyalty to Great Britain
saw themselves as faithful subjects of the king
horrified by the idea of taking up arms against British troops
Colonists divided in their feelings about the British
most Americans were content with British rule in the early 1700s
So, WHAT happened to change the relationship between Great Britain and the colonies?
Great Britain and the colonies fought a war against the French and their Indian allies.
The French and Indian War left Great Britain with huge debts and a vast new empire to protect.
To solve its problems, the British government passed new laws that tightened its control of the colonies.
Some of these laws also placed new taxes on the colonists.
They had been making their own laws and determining their own taxes for around 100 yrs.
Suddenly, Great Britain was changing the rules.
It wasn’t right, the colonists protested.
These feelings led many colonists to consider rebelling against their government (i.e. treason).
III Problems in the Colonies
A) Bacon’s Rebellion
1) 1676 – Nathaniel Bacon (a planter on the Virginia frontier) charged that Gov. William Berkeley
was not doing his job to protect the frontier from raids by Native Americans and was
more interested in the profitable fur trade.
Bacon soon took action by leading a raid of 300 farmers and servants against the Native
Americans: Bacon’s Rebellion.
Civil war broke out between Bacon’s volunteers and the governor’s troops.
The farmers(1) marched on Jamestown, (2) demanded other reforms, & (3) later burned the town!
The governor fled.
Bacon’s Rebellion gained popular support until he suddenly became ill and died.
Without him, the rebellion collapsed.
B) Controls on Colonial Trade
1)ENGLAND wanted its colonies to be PROFITABLE!
2)American colonies = FULL OF NATURAL RESOURCES =ENGLAND needed at this time.
3) They were also MAKING GOOD MONEY TRADING GOODS.
4) As early as 1650, Parliament passed laws to regulate trade; some helped the colonists while
others only made their anger grow.
- Europe followed a policy of mercantilism – to gain wealth, a country must sell (export) more than they bring in (import).
English colonies were important because…
aa) they provided raw materials to the home country (Great Britain)
bb) the colonists were a ready-made market for products from the home country
C) Navigation Acts
1) to make MERCANTILISM work, England passed laws to control colonial trade = Navigation
aa) 1st Act:ColonistsMUST USEEnglish-built ships for all their trade!
bb) 2nd Act: Certain colonial products, including tobacco, cotton, and indigo, could be
sold ONLY in ENGLAND or in an English POSSESSION.
2) Later Acts:
aa) Colonists could only buy English-made goods.
bb) Any products bought or sold elsewhere HAD TO BE SHIPPED THROUGH England
and be TAXED! D) Moving Toward Self-Government (Citizenship)
rule was given to his son George, the Prince Regent, in 1811
George III died blind, deaf and mad at Windsor Castle on January 29, 1820
7) Excerpt from http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon55.html:
“George's madness ultimately left the fate of the crown on his eldest son George, Prince Regent. Prince George was put in the daunting position of attempting to govern according to the increasingly erratic will of his father. A letter received by novelist E. M. Frostier from his aunt, Marine Thornton, describes the situation:
"... there he was sitting on the Throne with his King's Crown on, his robes scarlet and ermine(a white
coat with black at the tip of the tail ) and held his speech written out for him, just what he had to say.
But, oh dear, he strode up and made a bow and began "My Lords and Peacocks'. The people who were
not fond of him laughed, the people who did love him cried, and he went back to be no longer a king,
and his eldest son reigned in his stead".
B) The Proclamation of 1763
1) CAUSE: After the F & I War, GB faced many problems:
aa) (Question 1) How do we keep the Nat. Ams and Colonists from killing each
other? (Turn to a neighbor and discuss.)
(Answer) Set a boundary that cannot be crossed.
bb)(Question 2)How do we keep the Colonists from moving westward w/out
permission? (Turn to a neighbor and discuss.)
(Answer)No Native American was to go past the Appalachian Mts. to the east, and
no colonist could go west past the App. Mts.
2) EFFECT: Colonists claimed this to be an act of tyranny (unjust use of govt. power).
aa) argued that lands east of the Apps. were already full of colonists
bb) they needed to expand for farming purposes
cc) said colonoists could not move across the App Mts. w/out permission
dd) said the Proclamation of 1763 was too late
ee) settlers were already crossing the mts
3) RESULT: King George III = jacked up the number of Brit. soldiers in the colonies to 7,500
4) ECONOMICS: MONEY PROBLEMScaused a severe clash between the British govt. and
the colonists after the French and Indian War.
aa) British: wanted the colonists to help pay off the war debt
bb) wanted the natural resources that were in America
cc) the war made the colonists safe from the French and cost them little
dd)Colonists: - believed that Britain had a duty to protect the colonies
ee) the war HAD NOT been fought to PROTECT them, but to protect British trade
C) NEW PRIME MINISTER - George Grenville
- began by enforcing existing laws and then went on to introduce some new policies
1)Sugar Act: - Grenville persuaded Parliament to pass this act in 1764, putting a tax on
foreign molasses and sugar
- many New England industries depended on the less expensive molasses
from French sugar rather than the higher-priced British kind
- SETTLERS BOYCOTTED 2)Quartering Act: - (1765) required colonists to pay for quartering (housing/feeding)
British soldiers in their area
- SETTLERS OBJECTED D) The Stamp Act
In 1765, Parliament passed the Stamp Act
forced the colonists to pay a special tax on items that were stamped
newspapers, playing cards, and legal documents
3) Colonists claimed:
aa)as British citizens, they could be taxed ONLY by a body that represented them
they had no representation in Parliament
Patrick Henry(a hot-tempered, young lawyer AND member of the House of Burgesses) said, “We will have NO taxation without representation!”
4) colonists boycotted(take a stand on an issue and refuse to participate) numerous stamped items and formed the Stamp Act Congress to protest 5) small band (number) of angry colonists formed a protest group called the Sons of Liberty
who seized (took) and burned piles of the stamps
6) In 1766 = Parliament repealed (abolished/took back) the Stamp Act due to pressures from
British merchants on Grenville to help them gain back American trade
E) Declatory Act
1) another warning to the colonists against any future protests
2) Parliament had the right to rule and tax the colonies.
3) This DIDN’T go over well!!
F) Quartering Act (similar to communism – the govt makes ALL decisions)
1) 1765 = law ordered colonial assemblies to provide British troops w/quarters(housing)
aa) This included: candles, firing, bedding, cooking utensils, salt, vinegar, & beer or cider
VI The Townshend Acts
A) In 1767, Parliament passed the Townshend Acts:
1) placedimport taxes on numerous items
aa) including paint, glass, lead, paper, and tea coming INTO America
2) also allowed British officials to freely search colonists’ property for smuggled goods
3) colonists responded by boycotting many British goods
4) tensions grew in the colonies, especially in the cities
B) A Boycott of British Goods
1) Samuel Adams: outspoken leader of the Sons of Liberty
aa)kept the public anger simmering w/his speeches & newsletters warning that
Parliament was a threat to American rights/liberties
bb) quote about Adams: “every dip of his pen stung like a horned snake.”
cc) sent a letter to every colonyprotesting the Townshend Acts
dd) stated that the new duties violated the colonists’ rights as British citizens
ee) to protect those rights = colonies decided to boycott British goods.
ff) a peaceful form of protest even the Loyalists could support.
gg) Women were the key b/c it was said they could “do more for the good of the country
than five hundred noisy sons of liberty.”
1) shoppers, cooks, weavers, etc.
2) found ways to stop buying Brit imports
aaa) sewed dresses out of homespun cloth, brewed tea from pine needles, &
bought only American made goods
C) Repeal of the Townshend Acts
aa) Lord North (new head of British govt.; a booby-looking man who took naps during
Parliament meetings) realized the Townshend Acts were a money-loser for GB