No particular order 1492-1600

By changing the sex ratio in the region, it encouraged polygamy

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By changing the sex ratio in the region, it encouraged polygamy.

  • By creating animosity between the Africans and the Europeans, it led to a series of bloody wars

  • It drastically depopulated the region

  • It led the West Africans to adopt written languages

  • By passing the Navigation Acts, Parliament wanted to

    1. Ensure that England would be the primary beneficiary of the profits from colonial trade

    2. Aid the colonial shipbuilding industry

    3. Help the colonies gradually become self-sufficient

    4. Make the colonies subservient to England

  • Which of the following was a provision of the Navigation Act of 1696?

    1. Ships from European nations other than England were again allowed to trade in the colonies

    2. Sugar and tobacco were added to the list of goods that could be sold only in England or in the English colonies

    3. Foreign goods classified as “necessities” could once again be sold directly to the English colonies

    4. American merchants charged with smuggling under the Navigation Acts would be tried in vice-admiralty courts

  • Why did more aspects of West African culture survive in South Carolina than any of the other British colonies in North America?

    1. South Carolina officials consciously encouraged the survival of the West African culture

    2. South Carolina slaves were more isolated from American culture because of the inadequacy of that colony’s educational system

    3. The large number of Africans in South Carolina ensured the survival of many aspects of West African culture

    4. South Carolina had little trade with other colonies

  • Why did the Yamasees attack English settlements in South Carolina in 1715?

    1. Colonial traders not only abused the Yamasees but had also threatened their lands

    2. They were angry over the recent alliance between the Creeks and the English

    3. They had recently allied with the Spanish to push English settlers out of the Carolinas

    4. They heard rumors that the English settlers were planning to exterminate all Native Americans in the area.

  • James II and his successors, William and Mary, would have most likely agreed on which of the following statements?

    1. England should exercise tighter control over its colonies in North America

    2. The British constitution gives the English monarch absolute power

    3. Representatives assemblies in the British colonies should be abolished

    4. English regulation concerning colonial trade should be relaxed

  • Members of “court parties” differed from members of the “country interest” in which of the following ways?

    1. Members of court parties supported English officials assigned to implement the policies of the English government; members of the country interest supported more colonial autonomy

    2. Members of court parties supported the concept of divine-right monarchy; members of the country interest supported replacing the monarchy with a democratic republic

    3. Members of the court parties were born in England; members of the country parties were American born

    4. Members of the court parties were colonial officials appointed to their positions by the monarch; members of the country party were colonial officials appointed to their positions by colonial assemblies


    1. Most of the eighteenth century population growth in the British colonies of North America was due to

      1. Continuing migrations from England

      2. Natural increase resulting in part from the healthy colonial environment

      3. The influx of political refugees from wars in France and Germany

      4. Medical advances that dramatically lowered infant mortality rates

    2. Approximately what percentage of the American population was under 16 in 1775?

      1. 10

      2. 30

      3. 50

      4. 70

    3. Which of the following is true of the black population in the Chesapeake by the mid-eighteenth century?

      1. It was characterized by an excess of males over females

      2. It stabilized, with births equaling deaths

      3. Blacks suffered a death rate five times that of the white population

      4. It grew especially fast because imports from Africa were added to a population that sustained itself by natural increase

    4. The standard of colonial living in the 18th century rose for which of the following reasons?

      1. Overseas demand for American exports never slowed during the course of the century

      2. The passage of tax reform legislation by Parliament gave the American colonists more spendable income

      3. Instead of buying expensive British imports, the colonists bought less expensive goods manufactured and crafted in the colonies

      4. The price of British imports fell relative to the income that Americans earned from their exports

    5. The largest group of white non-English immigrants to the American colonies in the eighteenth century came from

      1. Holland and Belgium

      2. The Germanies

      3. Ireland and Scotland

      4. Sweden and Norway

    6. Which of the following is a characteristic of the German immigrants?

      1. They seldom came to family groups

      2. Because they belonged to a variety of Protestant sects, they added to the religious diversity of the middle colonies

      3. Most were Catholics fleeing persecutions at the hands of Lutherans in the German states.

      4. Most were exiled from their respective German states because of their radical political ideas

    7. Approximately what percentage of the colonial population south of New England was of non-English origin by 1775?

      1. 10

      2. 30

      3. 50

      4. 70

    8. Difference between the colonial experience of the Huguenots and that of the Jews?

      1. The Huguenots settled in the backwoods areas of the South, wehre they gained control over the Indian trade; the Jews settled in urban ghettos

      2. The Huguenots settled in urban ghettos; the Jews settled in the frontier regions of the middle colonies, where they became commercial farmers

      3. Most of the Huguenots maintained their distinctive French dialect and style of dress; the Jews quickly accepted English and they style of dress of Anglo-American culture

      4. Most of the Huguenots were absorbed into Anglo-American culture; the Jews were able to maintain their separate religion and a separate identity.

    9. Which of the following is considered a consequence of the growing racial and ethnic diversity of the American colonies in the eighteenth century?

      1. Colonial assemblies continued to be disorganized and weak

      2. Colonial leaders in the 1760s advocated that government take positive steps to improve the lives of minority groups

      3. Many colonial assemblies enacted legislation that guaranteed civil rights to minority groups

      4. Rather than speaking specifically of “English liberties,” leaders of the revolutionary movement of the 1770s spoke more broadly about the “rights of man.”

    10. Why did the American colonies become less dependent on European for manufactured goods during the eighteenth century?

      1. Parliament encouraged such independence by placing severe restrictions on the quantity and type of European goods that could be imported

      2. Many colonies encourages the development of colonial industries by enacting protective tariffs

      3. The American colonies were able to get such items more cheaply from Asia and Africa

      4. The increased demand for goods that accompanied the growth of the colonial population encouraged the development of colonial manufacturing enterprises.

    11. By 1775, the largest indigenous industry in the American colonies was the

      1. Furniture-making industry

      2. Iron-making industry

      3. Textile industry

      4. Woolens industry

    12. Around 1750, the largest single export from the American colonies was

      1. Cotton

      2. Tobacco

      3. Rice

      4. Grain

    13. Which of the following was a consequence of the Chesapeake’s conversion to grain cultivation after 1745?

      1. The region experienced a prolonged depression due to falling grain prices

      2. Port towns emerged in which merchants marketed wheat and corn

      3. Tobacco production plummeted and corn became the region’s largest export

      4. It took the lead among colonial regions in the production of the foodstuffs from the European market

    14. During the 1730s, how did rice growers differ from tobacco growers?

      1. The prices they received declined throughout the period

      2. They became less dependent on enslaved labor

      3. They could trade directly with continental Europe

      4. They suffered a decline in worldwide demand

    15. Which of the following had the highest average wealth per freeholder in Anglo-America by the time of the American Revolution?

      1. New England

      2. The Lower South

      3. The Chesapeake

      4. The Middle Colonies

    16. In contrast to 17th century immigrants, 18th century immigrants

      1. Had fewer opportunities for advancements

      2. Were seldom able to assimilate into Anglo-American culture

      3. Almost always came by choice

      4. Were primarily of English origin

    17. Why did the impact of King George’s War on the middle colonies differ from the war’s impact on the New England colonies?

      1. Fertile soil allowed the middle colonies to lead the way in the foodstuffs trade during and after the war

      2. The shipbuilding industry put the middle colonies in a favorable economic positions during and after the war

      3. The variety of ethnic groups in the middle colonies caused political, social and economic instability during and after the war

      4. Because of heavy causalities during the war, the middle colonies experienced severe labor shortages and economic stagnation in the war’s aftermath

    1. In his Two Treatises of Government Locke argued that

      1. The monarchy was placed on the throne by God and was, therefore, responsible only to God for his decisions and actions

      2. Humans beings were innately bad

      3. Monarchs should be eliminated so that political power could rest directly in the hands of the people

      4. The people could oust a ruler form power if he failed to protect their rights

    1. The ideas associated with the Enlightenment

      1. Challenged the notion of a divinely sanctioned political order

      2. Reinforced the idea that monarchs owe their power to God

      3. Challenged the concept of constitutional monarchy

      4. Challenged the concept of natural rights

    2. John Locked argued that human beings

      1. Are basically bad

      2. Are born with an innate sense of morality

      3. Do not have the ability to govern themselves

      4. Acquire all knowledge through observations of the external world

    3. What caused the Regulator movements of the late 1760s and the early 1770s?

      1. Tobacco growers were angry over high commissions charged by tobacco farmers

      2. Backcountry farmers were angry that the rights of local Indian tribes were officially recognized

      3. Merchants believed that British economic policies were harmful to the import business

      4. Backcountry farmers believed that they did not have the adequate voice in colonial politics


    1. Which of the following posed the greatest threat to the British colonies in N.A. in the early 18th century?

      1. Dutch

      2. French

      3. Iroquois Confederacy

      4. Spanish

    2. During both Queen Anne’s War and King George’s War, the Iroquois Confederacy

      1. Allied with British against France

      2. Followed a policy of diplomatic isolation

      3. Allied with Catabaws, Shawnees and Delawares against the French and British

      4. Followed a policy of neutrality

    3. Why did the Indian tribes of the Ohio Valley decide to support France in the Seven Years War?

      1. They believed such an alliance was the only way to preserve the balance of power between France and England in North America

      2. Colonel George Washington’s mistake and ultimate surrender to French forces at Fort Necessity convinced them to do so

      3. French authorities signed a pledge to respect and defined the cultural integrity of the tribes

      4. France promised to supply the troops with European goods and alcohol.

    4. Why did the Cherokees attack the Carolina and Virginia frontiers in 1760?

      1. The British abrogated their trade agreements with Cherokees

      2. Both colonies had been capturing and enslaving Cherokees

      3. The Cherokees acted in desperation because they realized that a British victory over the French put their society in jeopardy

      4. The governors of both colonies had declared war against the Cherokees

    5. Great Britain issued the Proclamation of 1763 to

      1. Prevent the French from re-establishing themselves in North America

      2. Maintain the dominance of the large colonial landowners

      3. Restrict the power of colonial assemblies

      4. Prevent clashes between colonists and Indians

    6. Which of the following statements is most consistent with the political thought of the Real Whigs?

      1. Human beings will be free only when they decide to discard organized government

      2. There is a constant threat to liberty with monarchial government

      3. The only way to preserve order and stability is to put power into the hands of an enlightened monarch

      4. Government should act in a positive manner to aid the poor, the destitute and aged

    7. The final decision made by the House of Burgesses regarding the Stamp Act resolves leads to which of the following conclusions?

      1. The burgesses denied Parliament the right to pass any legislation affecting the colonies

      2. The burgesses felt they owed no obedience to Parliament

      3. The burgesses believed George III to be a tyrant

      4. The burgesses did not want independence from England

    8. The most important reason for the repeal of the Stamp Act was the

      1. Formal protests made by colonial assemblies

      2. Replacement of Grenville as prime minister by Lord Rockingham

      3. Nonimportation movement

      4. Threat of even more violent and destructive mob action

    9. The Massachusetts assembly was dissolved in late 1768 because

      1. The Mass governor decided to govern the colony without such an assembly

      2. It supported the recent protest petition adopted by the Virginia House of Burgesses

      3. It called for open resistance to the Townshend Acts

      4. It refused to recall the Mass Circular Letter

    10. Political activism by ordinary colonists

      1. Frightened the ruling elite in the colonies

      2. Convinced many among the ruling elite that ordinary people should be given positions of power

      3. Led many colonists to demand that the right to vote be extended to the lower classes

      4. Led to a serious and sustained reaction against the resistance movement

    11. Imposition of the Tea Act would have meant which of the following for colonial customers?

      1. Cheaper tea

      2. Tea of inferior quality

      3. A scarcity of tea

      4. Higher taxes

    1. Thomas Paine’s pamphlet, Common Sense, introduced a new element into the debate with Britain by…

    A) calling for complete independence of the colonies and attacking not only King George III but also the idea of monarchy

    B) emphasizing that both internal and external taxes could be levied on the colonies by the Parliament in London

    C) rejecting John Locke’s contract theory of government

    D) arguing that taxation for the purpose of paying the government debt contracted during the French and Indian War

    E) suggesting the colonies reconcile their differences with the government in London
    2. Some of the more advance Native American cultures did all the following except…

    A) engage in significant ocean voyages of discovery

    B) establish large, bustling cities

    C) make strikingly accurate astronomical observations

    D) study mathematics

    E) carry on commerce

    3. Most likely the first Americans were

    A) Vikings from Scandinavia

    B) Spanish explorers of the fifteenth century

    C) People who crossed the land bridge form Eurasia to North America

    D) Portuguese sailors of Prince Henry the Navigator

    E) Refugees from Africa

    4. Pocahontas

    I. Was taken captive by an English trader and held as a hostage at Jamestown

    II. Was converted to Christianity at her own request

    III. Married John Rolfe

    IV. Died in England

    A) I only

    B) II only

    C) I and III only

    D) II and IV only

    E) I, II, III, and IV

    5. One of the main factors that enabled Europeans to conquer Native Americans with relative ease was

    A) The pacifistic nature of the native North Americans

    B) The settled agricultural societies of North Americans

    C) The absence of dense concentrations of population or complex nation-states in North America

    D) The use of native guides

    E) All of the above

    6. Captain John Smith’s role at Jamestown can best be described as

    A) Very limited

    B) Saving the colony from collapse

    C) Persuading the colonists to continue their hunt for gold

    D) Worsening the colonists’ relationship with the Indians

    E) Reducing the terrible death toll

    7. The early years at Jamestown were mainly characterized by

    A) Starvation, disease, and frequent Indian raids

    B) Economic prosperity

    C) Constant fear of Spanish invasion

    D) Major technological advancement

    E) Peace with Native Americans

    8. At the outset, Lord Baltimore allowed some religious toleration in the Maryland colony because he

    A) Hoped to secure freedom of worship for his fellow Catholics

    B) Was a committed atheist

    C) Wanted the colony’s Jews to be able to practice their faith

    D) Hoped to maintain a Catholic majority

    E) Was asked to do so by the king

    9. As a result of Sir Andros’ rule,

    A) The power of town meeting was curbed

    B) Officials tried to enforce the Navigation Laws

    C) Taxes were levied without the consent of elected representatives

    D) Smuggling was suppressed

    E) All the above

    10. Prior to successfully colonizing the New World, England defeated a major rival, and just prior to losing many of its New World colonies, England defeated another major rival. The rivals were first?:

    a. France, then the United States.

    b. France, then Holland.

    c. Portugal, then Spain.

    d. Spain, then France.

    e. France, then Spain.

    11. Which of the following was NOT involved in the Triangle Trade during the colonial period?

    a. rum.

    b. slaves.

    c. molasses.

    d. cotton.

    e. tobacco.

    12. The most significant consequence of the French and Indian Wars was that?

    a. Spain received Florida as a prize of war.

    b. colonists feared being dragged into another European war.

    c. England and the colonies began to distrust each other.

    d. there were British attacks against the tribes that had sided with the French.

    e. French power in Canada was strengthened.

    13. Most of the thirteen original colonies?

    a. started as proprietary colonies and became royal colonies by the 1750s.

    b. were within their first twenty years successful in terms of their original plans.

    c. started as charter colonies and became royal colonies by the 1750s.

    d. were formed as royal colonies.

    e. purchased their charters from their proprietors.

    14. The economic theory of mercantilism would be consistent with which of the following statements?

    a. economies will prosper most when trade is restricted as little as possible.

    b. colonies are of little economic importance to the mother country.

    c. it is vital that a country imports more than it exports.

    d. tariff barriers should be avoided as much as possible.

    e. a government should seek to direct the economy so as to maximize exports.

    15. The Wool Act of 1699, the Hat Act of 1732, and the Iron Act of 1750 were British attempts to?

    a. tax ships entering American ports.

    b. punish Bostonian merchants.

    c. increase American manufacturing.

    d. limit American manufacturing.

    e. provide colonial manufacturers with European markets.

    16. Which of the following resulted from King William's and Queen Anne's Wars?

    a. the French were driven from the North American continent.

    b. the Stuart kings were driven from power.

    c. the wars heightened Anglo-Americans' sense of British identity and made them feel dependent on the mother country for protection.

    d. the British captured New Orleans and started to settle Louisiana.

    17. In the 1750s, the relationship between the British Empire and the American colonies was characterized by which of the following?

    a. most Americans believed that the benefits of the empire far outweighed the costs.

    b. the British strictly enforced colonial trade regulations.

    c. most Americans objected to their membership in the British Empire.

    d. the British constantly intervened in American affairs.

    18. Which of the following was a major market for New England goods in the late 17th century?

    a. Continental Europe.

    b. South America.

    c. India.

    d. England.

    e. the West Indies.

    19. The long-range purpose of the Albany Congress in 1754 was to?

    a. achieve colonial unity and common defense against the French threat.

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