Nineteenth-Century Latin America Dr. Emily Berquist



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Nineteenth-Century Latin America
Dr. Emily Berquist

The nineteenth century in Latin America is traditionally studied as a transitional period in which most Latin American colonies became nations and subsequently struggled to invent their own political and social identities separate from Iberian Europe. Yet, many of the problems and challenges these new nations faced, such as a highly stratified class system, and the institution of slavery were directly inherited from the colonial period. What schemes did the new nations devise to deal with these growing pains? Did the place of indigenous peoples, women, the poor, and slaves – those who stood at the bottom of the colonial social hierarchy – improve or deteriorate with the newly imagined nations? How can we explain the different paths chosen by the new nations, and how should we understand the case of Cuba, which remained a colony of Spain until the final decade of the century?

The goal of the course is to provide students with a venue in which to hone their reading, thinking, writing, and persuasive speaking skills. Our discussions, readings, and assignments will naturally focus on Nineteenth-Century Latin America. However, students will find that the skills they will practice in this course will serve them throughout their education and their professional life.

Course Materials:

Books: (available at College Store and on 3 hour reserve at the Library when possible)

Juan Pablo Viscardo y Guzmán, Letter to the Spanish Americans

Kirsten Schultz, Tropical Versailles: Empire, Monarchy, and the Portuguese Royal Court in Rio de Janeiro, 1808-1821

John Lynch, Argentine Caudillo: Juan Manuel de Rosas

Matt Childs, The 1812 Aponte Rebellion in Cuba and the Struggle Against Atlantic Slavery

Lily Tuck, The News from Paraguay: A Novel

Roderick Barman, Princess Isabel of Brazil: Gender and Power in the Nineteenth-Century

Sarah Chambers, From Subjects to Citizens: Honor, Gender, and Politics in Arequipa, Peru, 1780-1854

Bill Beezley, Judas at the Jockey Club and Other Episodes of Porfirian Mexico
Highly Suggested:

Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations



It is a requirement of this course that all written work use proper Chicago Manual of Style historical citation. This book is a condensed version of the Chicago Manual and is adequate for your needs in this course.

William Strunk, The Elements of Style



Highly suggested if you have any questions or concerns about your writing skills.

Additional Readings: may appear on Beachboard. You may find by logging onto your beachboard page and clicking the link for this course.
** As students in this course are encouraged to engage in original historical analysis as opposed to memorization of facts, there is no assigned traditional textbook for this course. However, students who would like a reference, or additional background information may wish to consult

David Bushnell and Neill Macaulay, The Emergence of Latin America in the Nineteenth Century.



GRADING AND FORMATTING GUIDELINES
Your work will be graded on a clear articulation of a thesis, effective use of evidence to support your thesis, analytical critique of the materials, and the development and organization (including writing clarity and cohesiveness) of the essays. Your oral presentations must be clear, concise, and engaging of the course topic and your colleagues.
I do not negotiate for grades with students under any circumstances. I will not hear any grade appeals for assignments or final grades of a “B” or better (except in case of blatant professor error.)
Any work that does not adequately convey having done the reading(s) in question will automatically earn a “D.”
Any work that does not follow proper historical citation style (Chicago Manual of Style/Turabian guide) will automatically lose ½ letter grade. (See below.)
This is an upper division course. The written work you submit should be of the highest quality. All essays should be free of grammar, spelling, typographical, and form errors. All written work should be typed, double-spaced, with 12-point font size. Fonts such as Times and Times Roman are acceptable. Be sure to have 1” margins. Paginate your essay (page numbers) and staple the papers together. Your papers should have a title, an introduction, a thesis, supporting paragraphs, and a conclusion.
Throughout the semester, I will post your assignment grades on beachboard. You are encouraged to regularly check this site to be sure that everything is in order.

CITATION

Throughout the course, in every piece of written work, students must follow the official Chicago Manual of Style format of footnotes and bibliographic citations. Written work not conforming to this standard will be downgraded ½ letter grade from what it would have earned originally. Any final paper that fails to use citations or footnotes will be downgraded an entire letter grade from what it would have earned originally. This policy is non-negotiable.


There are also various websites that condense the information in the Chicago Manual of Style, like

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html
You may also consult the History Department Grammar and Style Manual (History Department Office, Fo2-106, $5) if you do not own one already.
For your reference, here are some examples of correct Chicago Style footnotes:

(book) E.C. Spary, Utopia’s Garden. French Natural History from Old Regime to Revolution. (Chicago, 2000), 7.


(article) Jutta Held, “Goya’s Festivals, Old Women, Monsters, and Blind Men,” History Workshop (1987), 41.
Remember for your final paper that Bibliographic entries are formatted differently.

(book) Bronner, Stephen. Reclaiming the Enlightenment: Towards a Politics of Radical Engagement. New York: Columbia University, 2004.

(article) Bliechmar, Daniela. “Painting as Exploration. Visualizing Nature in Eighteenth-Century Colonial Science.” Colonial Latin American Review 15 (2006
COURSE ASSESMENT
Course Objectives Assesment Outcomes

students will understand chronology the 19th C final historiography paper will

and be able to distinguish major changes and trends in the demonstrate students’ knowledge of

19th C. of change over time


students will understand historiographical debates and response papers, discussions,

identify changing trends final historiographical essay


students will understand how historians execute research weekly response papers, final essay

using primary and secondary sources classroom work with primary sources


students will practice and master analytical skills discussions, leading discussion section

weekly response papers, final essay


students will practice and master mechanical skills weekly response papers, final essay

appropriate for historians (how to construct

an argument, how to construct an essay, how

to properly cite and attribute)


Grading

Attendance: possible negative points

You must attend each class, arriving in the classroom by 12:30 exactly. Arrival after 12:35 will be considered absence, even if you remain for the entire class. Students with special circumstances affecting their attendance must discuss them with the professor in advance or as soon as possible noting the circumstances in a written document. Each unexcused absence will count for one point off your total final grade in the course.


Class Participation: 15% final grade

Grading is based on active classroom participation. This means that you must do all assigned readings by the due date, with no exceptions. If it appears that all students are not completing the assignments, we will have pop quizzes, and even the students who are doing well in the course will have to take these quizzes (i.e. if you do not do the reading you will be responsible for inflicting this displeasure on all of your classmates.) Active classroom participation also means participating at least once in every discussion session, and being readily involved in the mini-discussions we will have during lecture. It also means attending every class session.



Leading Discussion: 15% final grade

For each unit, a group of students will lead discussion. They will meet in advance and prepare a 10 minute presentation on the book in question. This will include a brief summary of its main arguments and techniques and several of the most important questions the students see relevant for discussion.


Response Papers 1-8: 5% final grade each

Each week students will be responsible for completing the reading assigned in the syllabus by the first class meeting of the week. On the day listed in the syllabus, students must turn in a 2-page original response paper (double-spaced, 12 point font). This paper is to have a clear introduction and historical thesis, and it will demonstrate your use of knowledge from the reading and class materials in order to answer the question posed by the professor on the syllabus.



Papers that do not adequately convey having read the book or materials will automatically earn a “D.” These papers must not be plagiarized in any form (see section on academic dishonesty below.) Those that are turned in late will lose an entire letter grade for each day in which they are not turned in. (i.e. a paper that would have earned a B if it were turned in on Monday during class but is turned in anytime after class on Monday will earn a C. If it is turned in after class period on Tuesday it will earn a D, so on and so forth.

Papers that do not use proper Chicago Manual of Style citation form will automatically lose ½ letter grade from what they would have earned originally.
Final Paper: 30% final grade

Your final paper will be a review essay based on three books. One of the books is a book from our class reading list. The other two will be chosen from a list of related books. This review essay will compare and contrast the argument, construction, sources, and effectiveness of the books included. It will also situate the topic of the books in the historical sweep of the nineteenth century in Latin America.

This paper is to be 8-10 pages, double spaced. It will be due during our scheduled final exam period. It will be submitted electronically.
Note on final grading: Grading on beachboard is done on a 1000 point scale to make for easier calculations. That means if your final grade on beachboard says 878, you have an 87.8. On beachboard grades, anything at a .5 or above will be rounded up for final calculations; i.e. an 87.8 will become an 88, but an 87.4 will remain an 87. Then the total final grade for the course will be caluclated by subtracting the negative points for absences.

NOTE: ALL WRITTEN TAKE HOME ASSIGNMENTS FOR THIS CLASS MUST BE PROCESSED THROUGH TURNITIN.COM (GO TO THE ASSIGNMENTS SECTION OF THE CLASS BEACHBOARD PAGE.) THEREFORE YOU MUST BE SURE THAT THE EMAIL REGISTERED WITH CSULB IS THE ONE YOU WILL USE – OTHERWISE YOU WILL HAVE PROBLEMS SUBMITTING YOUR ASSIGNMENTS. STUDENTS MUST ALSO TURN IN A HARD COPY OF EACH WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT DURING CLASS.


Class Schedule
Monday, January 25: Welcome & Class Introduction

I. Spain and America: From Colony to Nation

Reading: Juan Pablo Viscardo y Guzmán, Letter to the Spanish Americans


Wednesday, January 27: Lecture on Late Colonial Spanish America
Monday, February 1: Lecture on Spanish American Independence
Wednesday, February 3: Discussion

Assignment: Response Paper #1.
II. Brazil and America: From Colony to Empire

Reading: Kirsten Schultz, Tropical Versailles: Empire, Monarchy, and the Portuguese Royal Court in Rio de Janeiro, 1808-1821


Monday, February 8: Lecture on Late-Eighteenth Century Brazil & Portugal
Wednesday, February 10: Lecture on Nineteenth-Century Brazil, Part 1
Monday, February 15: Lecture on Nineteenth-Century Brazil, Part 2
Wednesday, February 17: Discussion

Assignment: Response Paper #2
III. Caudillos and The New Nations

Reading: John Lynch, Argentine Caudillo: Juan Manuel de Rosas


Monday, February 22: Lecture on Late Colonial and Early National Argentina
Wednesday, February 24: Lecture on Early National Governments
Monday, March 1: Lecture on National Governments
Wednesday, March 3: Discussion

Assignment: Response Paper #3.
IV. Slavery

Reading: Matt Childs, The 1812 Aponte Rebellion in Cuba and the Struggle Against Atlantic Slavery


Monday, March 8: Lecture on Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Phillipines after Spanish American Independence
Wednesday, March 10: Lecture on Slavery and Anti-Slavery in the Hispanic World, Part 1
Monday, March 15: Lecture on Slavery and Anti-Slavery in the Hispanic World, Part 2
Wednesday, March 17: Discussion

Assignment: Response Paper #4

V. Nineteenth-Century Latin America Through Fiction

Reading: Lily Tuck, The News from Paraguay: A Novel


Monday, March 22: Lecture on Nineteenth-Century Paraguay
Wednesday, March 24: Lecture on the Arts in Nineteenth-Century Latin America

March 29 – April 2 Spring Break

Monday, April 5: Discussion



Assignment: Response Paper 5.

VI. Women in the New Nations

Reading: Roderick Barman, Princess Isabel of Brazil: Gender and Power in the Nineteenth-Century


Wednesday, April 7: Lecture on Women in Late Colonial Latin America
Monday, April 12: Lecture on Women in Nineteenth-Century Latin America, Part 1
Wednesday, April 14: Lecture on Women in Nineteenth-Century Latin America, Part 2
Monday, April 19: Discussion

Assignment: Response Paper #6

VII. Political Participation in the New Nations

Reading: Sarah Chambers, From Subjects to Citizens: Honor, Gender, and Politics in Arequipa, Peru, 1780-1854


Wednesday, April 21: Lecture on Nineteenth-Century Peru
Monday, April 26: Lecture on Race & Society in the Nineteeth Century, Part 1
Wednesday, April 28: Lecture on Race & Society in the Nineteenth Century, Part 2
Monday May 3: Discussion

Assignment: Response Paper #7

VIII. Making Way for the Twentieth Century

Reading: Bill Beezley, Judas at the Jockey Club and Other Episodes of Porfirian Mexico


Wednesday, May 5: Lecture on Late-Nineteenth Century Governments
Monday, May 10: Lecture on Mexico at the Turn of the Century
Wednesday, May 12: Discussion

Assignment: Response Paper #8.

FINAL REVIEW ESSAY IS DUE DURING REGULARLY SCHEDULED FINAL EXAM PERIOD.


Directions for Final Review Essay

Your final paper will be a review essay based on three books. One of the books is a book from our class reading list (it cannot be Letter to the Spanish Americans or The News from Paraguay.) The other two will be chosen from a list of related books (see below.) This review essay will compare and contrast the argument, construction, sources, and effectiveness of the books included. It will also situate the topic of the books in the historical sweep of the nineteenth century in Latin America. This paper is to be 8-10 pages, double spaced. It will be due during our scheduled final exam period. It will be submitted electronically.


Choice One: The Brazilian Monarchy

You Must Review: Kirsten Schultz, Tropical Versailles: Empire, Monarchy, and the Portuguese Royal Court in Rio de Janeiro, 1808-1821

Choose 2 of the Following:

Jeffrey D. Needell, A Tropical Belle Epoque: Elite Culture and Society in Turn-of-the Century Rio de Janeiro

Emilia Viotti da Costa, The Brazilian Empire: Myths and Histories

Roderick Barman, Citizen Emperor: Pedro II and the Making of Brazil


Choice Two: Caudillos

You Must Review: John Lynch, Argentine Caudillo: Juan Manuel de Rosas

Choose 2 of the Following:

Charles Walker, Smoldering Ashes: Cuzco and the Creation of Republican Peru, 1780-1840

Peter Guardino, Peasants, Politics, and the Formation of Mexico’s National State

Guy Thomson, Patriotism, Politics, and Popular Liberalism in Nineteenth-Century Mexico: Juan Francisco Lucas and the Puebla Sierra

John Charles Chasteen, Heroes on Horseback: The Life and Times of the Last Gaucho Caudillos
Choice Three: Slavery

You Must Review: Matt Childs, The 1812 Aponte Rebellion in Cuba and the Struggle Against Atlantic Slavery

Choose 2 of the Following:

João Jose Reis, Slave Rebellion in Brazil: The Muslim Uprising of 1835 in Bahia

Hunefeldt, Christine, Paying the Price of Freedom: Family and Labor Among Lima’s Slaves, 1800-1854

Laurent Dubois, Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution

Zephyr L. Frank, Dutra’s World: Wealth and Family in Nineteeth-Century Rio de Janeiro
Choice Four: Women

You Must Review: Roderick Barman, Princess Isabel of Brazil: Gender and Power in the Nineteenth Century

Choose 2 of the Following:

Sandra Lauderdale Graham, House and Street: The Domestic World of Servants and Masters in Nineteenth-Century Rio de Janeiro

Silvia Arrom, The Women of Mexico City

Veronica Martínez-Alier, Marriage, Class, and Color in Nineteenth-Century Cuba


Choice Five: Political Participation

You Must Review: Sarah Chambers, From Subjects to Citizens: Honor, Gender, and Politics in Arequipa, Peru,

Choose 2 of the Following:

Cecilia Mendez, The Plebeian Repbulic: The Huanta Rebellion and the Making of the Peruvian State, 1820-1850

Richard Warren, Vagrants and Citizens: Politics and the Masses in Mexico City from Colony to Republic
Choice Six: Making Way for the Twentieth Century

You Must Review: Bill Beezley, Judas at the Jockey Club and Other Episodes of Porfirian Mexico

Choose 2 of the Following:

Jaime Rodriguez, The Origins of Mexican National Politics, 1808-1847

Samuel Basch, Recollections of Mexico: The Last Ten Months of Maximillian’s Empire

Hale, Charles, The Transformation of Liberalism in Late-Nineteenth Century Mexico





A Note to History Majors
The History Department now requires majors to move through a series of courses that begins with History 301, is followed by 302, and culminates in a Senior Seminar (499) that matches one of the areas of concentration selected for the major. History 499 must be taken in the last semester of work, or after 18 units of upper-division work have been completed in the major. Those 18 units must include at least six units (two courses) in the concentration that is the focus of the 499. Students in 499 are required to assemble a portfolio that reflects their work in upper-division history courses. This portfolio is designed to enable students to show development in the major, and their mastery of key analytical, mechanical, and presentation skills. As a part of the process, history majors (or prospective majors) should save all work from upper-division history courses for potential inclusion in this portfolio.  For portfolio guidelines, see www.csulb.edu/depts/history. For questions and/or advising about the portfolio, contact Dr. Sharlene Sayegh at ssayeghc@csulb.edu, or phone 562.985.5428




COURSE RULES & REGULATIONS:





Absences for Student Athletes or Others Involved in Special University or Work Activities Policy: If you are going to miss a class because of a sporting event, work training session, performance, or the like, you must present the professor with an official letter from your supervisor on university or business letterhead two weeks in advance. Failure to do so will jeopardize your attendance and participation grade.
Attendance Policy: You will see in the first pages of your syllabus that attendance is an important part of your participation grade. Each unexplained absence results in one point being deducted from your total final grade in the course. The university defined explained absences as follows:
         1. Illness or injury to the student

         2. Death, injury, or serious illness of an immediate family member or the like

         3. Religious reasons (California Education Code section 89320)

         4. Jury duty or government obligation

         5. University sanctioned or approved activities (examples include: artistic performances, forensics presentations, participation in research conferences, intercollegiate athletic activities, student government, required class field trips, etc.)

Faculty members are not obligated to consider other absences as excused.
Cheating and Plagiarism Policy: Neither is permitted in my class under any circumstances. This includes copying from other students, past students, friends & family members, or the Internet. I know how to check for plagiarized work and how to recognize work that does not belong to the student, so do not try it! University policy allows the professor to determine the consequences of cheating. IN MY COURSES, STUDENTS CAUGHT CHEATING AUTOMATICALLY EARN AN F FOR THEIR TOTAL FINAL GRADE IN THE COURSE.The University has an extensive policy on the subject, you may find it at: http://www.csulb.edu/divisions/aa/grad_undergrad/senate/documents/policy/1985/19/
Contacting the Professor Policy: I generally will respond to your emails within 24 hours. Do not email me more than once within 24 hours. Although you may technically call my office phone, I might not be in and I generally prefer email contact.
Grading Policy: Each course has different percentages for grading which you will see on the first pages of your syllabus. However, to give you a general idea of grading:

A – exemplary performance. Student completed all assignments on time, neatly, and put careful thought and analysis into all aspects. Well written and shows good evidence of critical thinking and mastery of historical methods. Outstanding above other work in the class.

B – good performance. Student completed all assignments on time, neatly, and showed thought and analysis. Well written and shows some critical thinking, familiarity with historical methods. Above average work in the class.

C – average performance. Student completed most assignments, some not on time, not always neatly. Shows only minimal mastery of course materials and no real critical analysis.

D – below average, barely satisfactory. Student missing some assignments, or they were very late. Lack of thought an analysis, lack of understanding of historical methods.

F – unacceptable.


Grade Complaint Policy: Students are encouraged to check their grades on beachboard regularly, as well as to keep all assignments for the course. If it so happens that I fail to record a grade or record a grade differently than what I wrote on your assignment, please

Inform me of the matter as soon as possible and present me with the written proof so that I may change your grade.



While I do resolve errors in recording grades as quickly as possible, as a general rule, I do not negotiate for grades with students who received an “A” or a “B” on any assignment or in the course itself.
Late Assignment Policy: For every 24 hours an assignment is late, the assignment goes down one letter grade from what it would have originally earned. IE if an assignment was due Monday at 9 and you turn it in any time after that until Tuesday at 9, it loses one letter grade. This policy is non-negotiable.
Office Hours Policy: I have two regularly scheduled office hours per week, which are posted on the front page of your syllabus. I will also meet with students for pre-arranged meetings – contact me over email.
Special Needs/Disabled Students Policy: I want to help you and accommodate you with physical and/or learning special needs. In order to facilitate this process, it is best to let me know of what you need by the end of the third class meeting so I have ample time to arrange for everything. You do not need to contact me in person in front of the entire class, if you feel uncomfortable with this you can email me or come to my office hours.
Response Paper Policy: Your paper loses an entire letter grade for each day it is late. A paper that does not follow proper Chicago Manual of Style/Turabian historical citation will lose ½ letter grade. A response paper that does not adequately convey having done the reading will earn a “D.” If there is more than one reading for a given response paper or unit, the paper must address all of the readings. All response papers must deal with the readings assigned; they are not meant for general musings on a topic.
Wait List Policy: Unless the History Department requests a special addition of a certain number of students, I will not add students over the enrollment limit under any circumstances. If enrollment is full and some students drop the course, I will add students up until the enrollment limit. Those who are on the printed wait list given to me before the start of the semester will get priority, in order of how they are listed on the list. Any additional students can sign their name to the bottom of this list and we will proceed through. I will contact all students regarding this matter via email. Do not discuss it with me in class or in office hours – if you want to be on the waitlist all you need to do is sign your name and email on the paper I pass around. If there is a space for you, I will contact you.

Withdrawal Policy:

1. Withdrawal during the first two weeks of instruction:

Students may withdraw during this period and the course will not appear on their permanent records. To do this a student must file a Complete Withdrawal Application to drop all classes or a Change of Program Form for a specific class or classes.



2. Withdrawal after the second week of instruction and prior to the final three weeks of instruction:

Withdrawals during this period are permissible only for serious and compelling reasons. The procedure for withdrawal during this period is the same as in item 1, except that the approval signatures of the instructor and department chairperson are required. The request and approvals shall state the reasons for the withdrawal. Students should be aware that the definition of "serious and compelling reasons" as applied by faculty and administrators may become narrower as the semester progresses. Copies of such approvals are kept on file in the Admissions and Records Office.



3. Withdrawal during the final three weeks of instruction:

Withdrawal during the final three weeks of instruction are not permitted except in cases such as accident or serious illness where the circumstances causing the withdrawal are clearly beyond the student's control and the assignment of an Incomplete is not practical. Ordinarily, withdrawal in this category will involve total withdrawal from the campus except that a Credit/No Credit grade or an Incomplete may be assigned for courses in which sufficient work has been completed to permit an evaluation to be made. Request for permission to withdraw under these circumstances must be made in writing on forms available in the Office of Admissions and Records. The requests and approvals shall state the reasons for the withdrawal. These requests must be approved by the instructor, department chairperson and dean of the school. Copies of such approvals are kept on file in the Office of Admissions and Records.



There is a separate withdrawal policy for approved medical or psychological reasons.




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