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a2 climagate Climagate was not a scandal – 3 independent investigations found

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a2 climagate

Climagate was not a scandal – 3 independent investigations found

Suzuki 7/19/10 (David, Chair of the David Suzuki Foundation, is an award-winning scientist,Environmentalist, Science deals blow to deluded climate change deniers,
Let’s take a look at some recent events. First, three independent investigations found that the unimaginatively named “climategate” was anything but the scandal or “nail in the coffin of anthropogenic global warming” that deniers claimed. Although the reports, the last of which was released in early July, found that East Anglia University climate scientists at the centre of the hacked e-mails brouhaha could have been more open about sharing data, their science was rigorous and sound. And a review of criticisms of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s global assessment of climate change found that, despite “a very small number of near-trivial errors in about 500 pages,” the report contained “no errors that would undermine the main conclusions.” Yet another independent study supported Penn State University climatologist Michael Mann. Deniers have been attacking Prof. Mann’s research for years.


Prolif High – China arm sale

Chinese sale of nuclear power reactors would undermine the NPT

Jay Solomon, 7/18/10 (July 18, “China's sale plan spurs U.S. concern”,,
ISLAMABAD—The U.S. State Department is voicing growing concern about China's proposed sale of two nuclear-power reactors to Pakistan, an issue that could complicate Washington's latest efforts to strengthen cooperation with Pakistan. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, who is visiting Islamabad for two days as part of a broader Asia trip aimed at buttressing U.S. alliances in the war in Afghanistan, is expected to unveil $500 million in new U.S. development projects for Pakistan in meetings with senior Pakistani officials Monday, U.S. officials said. She might also raise the expected nuclear sale with Pakistani officials, a deal that U.S. officials fear could undermine the Obama administration's broader nonproliferation campaign, senior U.S. officials said. These officials said the State Department has also intensified discussions with China about its proposed nuclear sale and whether it would violate Beijing's commitments to the major international body regulating nuclear trade, the Nuclear Suppliers Group. With Pakistan and China insisting the deal is legitimate and vowing to go through with it, the issue could prove an irritant in U.S.-Pakistani relations, as Mrs. Clinton and other senior U.S. officials gathered Sunday for the second U.S.-Pakistan strategic dialogue, which end Monday. China joined the Vienna-based Nuclear Suppliers Group, or NSG, in 2004. But Beijing has argued that the proposed sale by China National Nuclear Corp. of two 320-megawatt nuclear reactors to the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission wouldn't violate its NSG commitments, as the deal was brokered before 2004. China has developed two civilian reactors in Pakistan under this initial deal, Chinese and Pakistani officials said. The State Department is challenging China's use of the grandfather clause inside the NSG for the two new reactors. It says China would need a special waiver from the group's 46 member states to go ahead with the multibillion-dollar sale. "Based on what we know, the export appears to extend beyond those projects that were grandfathered when China entered the NSG," a State Department official said. "[It] would therefore require a special exception granted by the consent of the NSG, as was done for India in 2008." Neither Pakistan nor India is a signature to the United Nations' principal nonproliferation treaty, nor are these countries' nuclear facilities completely under U.N. safeguards. Any NSG member states seeking to sell nuclear technologies to these countries must get special waivers. In 2008, the Bush administration secured a waiver from the NSG to allow U.S. companies to sell nuclear technologies to India. Pakistani officials on Sunday said President Asif Ali Zardari's government remained committed to purchasing the two new Chinese reactors, despite Washington's concerns. One Pakistani official said the Chinese reactors were central to Islamabad's goal to generate 8,800 megawatts of electricity from nuclear power by 2030. He declined to say when the sale might be completed, but Mr. Zardari visited Beijing last week to discuss economic issues. "This cooperation isn't something new and has been going on for years," said the official. "We don't need additional approval from the NSG." During Mrs. Clinton's Pakistan visit, U.S. officials hope to highlight what they describe as significantly improved coordination between the two sides in the fight against al Qaeda, along with advances on other security and economic issues over the past year. In October, Congress passed legislation authorizing $7.5 billion in development aid for the South Asian nation over the next five years. U.S. officials on Sunday said this aid has allowed Washington to show Pakistani people that the U.S. was focused on more than just fighting al Qaeda and the Taliban. It is "producing a change in Pakistani attitudes, first within the government and gradually, more slowly, within the public," said Richard Holbrooke, the State Department's point man on Pakistan and Afghanistan. Development projects to be unveiled by Mrs. Clinton will focus on helping Pakistan address the country's chronic water and power shortages, as well as on strengthening Islamabad's educational and judicial institutions. In addition to President Zardari, Mrs. Clinton is scheduled to meet with Pakistan's foreign minister, Shah Mehmood Qureshi, and Army chief Gen. Ashfaq Kayani. U.S. officials remain wary of Pakistan's history of nuclear proliferation and the potential threat the Chinese reactor sale could pose to President Barack Obama's broader nonproliferation agenda. U.S. and U.N. officials allege that Pakistani scientist A.Q. Khan had run the world's biggest black market in nuclear technologies before his arrest in 2004. The U.S. views Pakistan as among the world's most-prolific producers of the nuclear fuels required for producing atomic weapons. Mr. Obama has pushed to tightly control the spread of nuclear technologies through the NSG and other global bodies. His administration has also pressed nations to better monitor and safeguard their fissile materials. U.S. officials worry that if China were to sell the reactors to Pakistan without the NSG's approval, it could further erode the ability of the international system to stanch the flow of nuclear technologies. They argue the system is already under stress due to alleged efforts by Iran, Syria and North Korea to clandestinely develop nuclear weapons. Pakistani officials counter that the U.S. is practicing a double standard by supporting the sale of nuclear technologies to India, but not Pakistan. Islamabad has been pressing the Obama administration to support a civilian nuclear-cooperation deal for Pakistan similar to India's, but has so far been rebuffed. "You shouldn't just make exemptions for certain countries," said the Pakistani official. "You need a criteria-based approach, not a country-specific approach."

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