The majority of livestock in Sudan are raised in traditional pastoral systems, on community rangelands. In western Sudan, during the rainy season, when access is not restricted, households migrate north with their cattle (and some sheep and goats) returning to the savannah during the dry season. Income is derived from the sale of animals, meat, milk and cheese. In southern Sudan, where rainfed, arable farming is possible, more sedentary systems exist. Livestock are also important but tend to be the smaller ruminants.
In southern and western Sudan (particularly around Darfur), USAID and Vétérinaires Sans Frontières/Belgium (VSF) are amongst aid agencies working with the Sudanese government to enhance delivery of a community animal health service, as well as to strengthen local preparedness and response to disease outbreaks. Zoonotic diseases, such as bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, anthrax and rabies are endemic and, with the risk to public health, severely constrain limited available resources for animal health.
In Darfur, USAID partner, CHF International, recently opened veterinary clinics in Nyala, El Fasher, and Kass where consultations and medicine are offered without charge. Government veterinary clinics also operate in these three towns, but only provide free consultations. CHF has also initiated a number of successful vaccination campaigns, including for rabies and sheep pox. Regular worming in donkeys is also carried out.