Negative 1nc – Afro-Pessimism K



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Democracy link

Democratic deliberation and promotion ignore that not everyone has an equal vote – blacks are never welcome at the deliberative circle which leads to exclusionary violence


Wilderson, 03 (Frank, “Gramsci's Black Marx: Whither the Slave in Civil Society” an American writer, dramatist, filmmaker and critic. He is a full professor of Drama and African American studies at the University of California, Irvine. Pp. 6-8) NN

The value of reintroducing the unthought category of the slave, by way of noting the absence of the Black subject, lies in the Black subject’s potential for extending the demand placed on state/capital formations because its reintroduction into the discourse expands the intensity of the antagonism. In other words, the slave makes a demand, which is in excess of the demand made by the worker. The worker demands that productivity be fair and democratic (Gramsci's new hegemony, Lenin's dictatorship of the proletariat), the slave, on the other hand, demands that production stop; stop without recourse to its ultimate democratization. Work is not an organic principle for the slave. The absence of Black subjectivity from the crux of marxist discourse is symptomatic of the discourse's inability to cope with the possibility that the generative subject of capitalism, the Black body of the 15th and 16th centuries, and the generative subject that resolves late-capital's over-accumulation crisis, the Black (incarcerated) body of the 20th and 21st centuries, do not reify the basic categories which structure marxist conflict: the categories of work, production, exploitation, historical self-awareness and, above all, hegemony. If, by way of the Black subject, we consider the underlying grammar of the question What does it mean to be free? that grammar being the question What does it mean to suffer? then we come up against a grammar of suffering not only in excess of any semiotics of exploitation, but a grammar of suffering beyond signification itself, a suffering that cannot be spoken because the gratuitous terror of White supremacy is as much contingent upon the irrationality of White fantasies and shared pleasures as it is upon a logic—the logic of capital. It extends beyond texualization. When talking about this terror, Cornel West uses the term “black invisibility and namelessness” to designate, at the level of ontology, what we are calling a scandal at the level of discourse. He writes: [America's] unrelenting assault on black humanity produced the fundamental condition of black culture -- that of black invisibility and namelessness. On the crucial existential level relating to black invisibility and namelessness, the first difficult challenge and demanding discipline is to ward off madness and discredit suicide as a desirable option. A central preoccupation of black culture is that of confronting candidly the ontological wounds, psychic scars, and existential bruises of black people while fending off insanity and selfannihilation. This is why the "ur-text" of black culture is neither a word nor a book, not and architectural monument or a legal brief. Instead, it is a guttural cry and a wrenching moan -- a cry not so much for help as for home, a moan less out of complaint than for recognition. (80-81) Thus, the Black subject position in America is an antagonism, a demand that can not be satisfied through a transfer of ownership/organization of existing rubrics; whereas the Gramscian subject, the worker, represents a demand that can indeed be satisfied by way of a successful War of Position, which brings about the end of exploitation. The worker calls into question the legitimacy of productive practices, the slave calls into question the legitimacy of productivity itself. From the positionality of the worker the question, What does it mean to be free? is raised. But the question hides the process by which the discourse assumes a hidden grammar which has already posed and answered the question, What does it mean to suffer? And that grammar is organized around the categories of exploitation (unfair labor relations or wage slavery). Thus, exploitation (wage slavery) is the only category of oppression which concerns Gramsci: society, Western society, thrives on the exploitation of the Gramscian subject. Full stop. Again, this is inadequate, because it would call White supremacy "racism" and articulate it as a derivative phenomenon of the capitalist matrix, rather than incorporating White supremacy as a matrix constituent to the base, if not the base itself. What I am saying is that the insatiability of the slave demand upon existing structures means that it cannot find its articulation within the modality of hegemony (influence, leadership, consent)—the Black body can not give its consent because “generalized trust,” the precondition for the solicitation of consent, “equals racialized whiteness” (Lindon Barrett). Furthermore, as Orland Patterson points out, slavery is natal alienation by way of social death, which is to say that a slave has no symbolic currency or material labor power to exchange: a slave does not enter into a transaction of value (however asymmetrical) but is subsumed by direct relations of force, which is to say that a slave is an articulation of a despotic irrationality whereas the worker is an articulation of a symbolic rationality. White supremacy’s despotic irrationality is as foundational to American institutionality as capitalism’s symbolic rationality because, as Cornel West writes, it… …dictates the limits of the operation of American democracy -- with black folk the indispensable sacrificial lamb vital to its sustenance. Hence black subordination constitutes the necessary condition for the flourishing of American democracy, the tragic prerequisite for America itself. This is, in part, what Richard Wright meant when he noted, "The Negro is America's metaphor." (72) And it is well known that a metaphor comes into being through a violence which kills, rather than merely exploits, the object, that the concept might live. West's interventions help us see how marxism can only come to grips with America's structuring rationality -- what it calls capitalism, or political economy; but cannot come to grips with America's structuring irrationality: the libidinal economy of White supremacy, and its hyper-discursive violence which kills the Black subject that the concept, civil society, may live. In other words, from the incoherence of Black death, America generates the coherence of White life. This is important when thinking the Gramscian paradigm (and its progenitors in the world of U.S. social movements today) which is so dependent on the empirical status of hegemony and civil society: struggles over hegemony are seldom, if ever, asignifyingat some point they require coherence, they require categories for the recordwhich means they contain the seeds of anti-Blackness. Let us illustrate this by way of a hypothetical scenario. In the early part of the 20th century, civil society in Chicago grew up, if you will, around emerging industries such as meat packing. In his notes on “Americanism and Fordism” (280-314), Gramsci explores the “scientific management” of Taylorism, the prohibition on alcohol, and Fordist interventions into the working class family, which formed the ideological, value-laden grid of civil society in places like turn of the century Chicago:

Democracy is a synonym for imperialism and colonialism – whites always control the conversations


Curry 11, Tommy Curry is an associate professor at Southern Illinois University, “In the Fiat of Dreams: The Delusional Allure of Hope, the Reality of Anti-Black Violence and the Demands of the Anti-Ethical.,” http://www.academia.edu/3384301/_Draft_In_the_Fiat_of_Dreams_The_Delusional_Allure_of_Hope_the_Reality_of_Anti-Black_Violence_and_the_Demands_of_the_Anti-Ethical, NN

For many philosophers and social political theorists, the eventuation of an egalitarian humanist society is the teleological impetus, the inevitable consequence, of embracing liberalism and integrationist theories of democracy.∂ While these proclamations have been by Black thinkers for centuries as the promulgations of America‘s democratic potential, the Black victims of America‘s fetish for racism, those who are forced to endure the failure of white∂ theory to arrest the racist tyranny, have their deaths, their murders, their deprivation interpreted as caricatures, the brutality of which is taken to be academic capital driving philosophical engagements with and theorizations about∂ race within the confines America‘s geograp∂ hy. In this illusory world, Black citizens are aspirations∂ thought experiments rooted in the desire to motivate political theories through the excoriation of Blackness. The Black thinker becomes a voyeur gazing upon this thought∂ raced, but not unhumaned by Blackness∂ the citizen, historically white, empirically violent, but recognized as human instead of animal. Hope is the then made the concrete political delusion; the idea that is taken to explain all Black social and political existence since slavery as progress, despite contradiction or regress. In thinking about Blackness, the Black scholar removes Black existence from the horrors of America preferring to think Blackness as unrealized. This is a conceptual failing of Black scholarship, a failing that Frank Wilderson describes as∂ people consciously or unconsciously peel away from the strength and the terror of their evidence in order to propose some kind of coherent, hopeful solution to things.‖∂ . It is in this act∂ the cessation of inquiry whereby the epistemic is collapsed into the political/ontological∂ that the dereliction of Black thought, its predilection towards becoming a racial normative, is apparent.∂ Much like the dilemmas found in dealing with Black death and confronting the genocidal tendencies haunting the lives of Black men articulated by Wynter ∂ in chapter one, there is a need to sanitize, make tolerable,∂ academify∂ Black existence so that it does not become nihilistic and fatalist, but a thought experiment that offers the white listener, reader, or colleague entrance into the possibility of being an anti-racist compassionate white reformis





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