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Panama Canal Tonnage.
Computation for tonnage /of ships passing through Panama Canal. Approximates
nett registered tonnage
, but has important differences.
Circular fair leads at ends of a ship. Necessary when being towed by shore locomotives in Panama Canal.
Small, circular sheets of newly-formed ice that do not impede navigation.
Mozambique vessel mentioned by Hakluyt. 'Like a barge, with one matsail of coconut leaves. The hull sewed together
with the rinds of trees
, and pinned with wooden pins.'
A more or less rhythmic in and out movement of ship's plating due to variations in water-pressure. Particularly noticeable forward when pitching.
Beam placed athwartships to support shipside plating against panting stresses.
to water pressure variations
, that tends to cause an in and out movement of ship's underwater plating.
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