Unit Title: Multicultural Literature with a focus on the Native American culture as witnessed through the writings (and artwork) of Native Americans in a European descendent society.
This unit within the Multicultural Literature course focuses on the folklore, short stories and poems of various groups of Native Americans.
Unit Overview: The Multicultural Literature class is heterogeneous mix of 12th grade students. Students are of varied ability and processing levels. Of the seventeen students assigned to the class the highest-level processor is enrolled in honors English classes, the least academically motivated has an IEP requiring additional time for projects. The multicultural literature class is the only one of its kind offered so there is no level 3 or level 1 distinction for students. The class period is eighty minutes with twenty minutes dedicated to independent reading. There is a resultant independent reading project due at the end of each quarter. The class meets every other day.
Identification and definition of symbolic elements in the literature will encourage students to empathize and develop a deeper understanding of the actions, struggles triumphs and identities of those outside the student’s own existence. By experiencing thoughts, ideas, emotions and trials of others, students will be encouraged to make connections with actions, events, emotions and themes of other people. It is my goal that the Native American unit will encourage students to examine their own honor and belief systems in context to the same honor and belief systems of another culture.
Timeline: Based on an 80 minute block meeting every other day, this unit should take 6 weeks.
Goals: to have students empathize and develop a deeper understanding of the actions, struggles triumphs and identities of those outside the student’s own existence. By experiencing thoughts, ideas, emotions and trials of others, students will be encouraged to make connections with actions, events, emotions and themes of other people. It is my goal that the Native American unit will encourage students to examine their own honor and belief systems in context to the same honor and belief systems of another culture. One of the goals is to create an awareness of, if not an appreciation for, a culture which has gone largely unnoticed by the American educational system until roughly the 1980’s. (Teaching Literature in the Secondary School, 456)
Rationale: The Native American value system has always been a circle of respect, honor and tradition as evidenced by their ecologically spiritual orientation. As ecological awareness, historical values and individual rights become more of an individual focus in development in the high school, students will be encouraged to see those same goals and understandings as they identify a culture vastly different (for the most part) from their own. Once students are encouraged to examine, explore and make meaning of the actions, beliefs and practices of others, they can then look at their own idea of identity to draw correlation, comparison and similarities to themselves.
To start this unit, a K-W-L strategy can be utilized. Find out what the students already know about the Native American experience. Ideas range from historical events like the battle at Wounded Knee to ecological, spiritual connections with the natural environment. At the senior level it is not surprising to have someone bring up such acts as the child removal acts, Indian removal from tribal lands or the intentional acts of European settlers to “remove” or genocide the Native American society from the American existence. The first day few days should be spent on collaborative collections of ideas and/or understandings regarding the Native American historical existence. Time is necessary for all students to contribute in the “know” section of the K-W-L strategy.
Then move onto the “What do you want to learn?”. Let the students decide where they want to go. Let them know what needs to be covered and learned and ask them to work with you and getting your needs and their wants met. At this juncture a concept web of thoughts and ideas can be produced on the identity of the American teenager. In order to explore identity, purpose and symbolism within another culture students first need to understand what these thoughts mean to themselves. A concept web covering the enduring understandings should have a central title of “American” or “American teenager”. Discuss verbally what that idea means and create four subsidiary webs of “success, identity, faith and expression”. In the Native American concept web I changed the four to be “expression, faith, identity (including symbolic elements) and history”. The Native American culture has altered and suffered through historical events and the pressures of popular America.
The concept web I worked on with this class revolved around how we identify ourselves as individuals within our own American culture. The concept web they created follows. (Figure 1) Then a concept web should be created containing the same, or similar, ideas and how they relate to the Native American experience. (Figure 2)
How does culture influence the identity of the individual?
1) How do people express what they think is important to believe in?
2) How does our own cultural identity influence or affect our understanding of others?
3) How does one’s culture influence an individual’s idea of success?
Learning Outcomes and Enduring Understandings.
1) Students will learn how the history and culture of Native Americans shapes their lives, goals and dreams.
2) Through reading about another culture within the American society, students will be able to analyze the influence of the American culture upon themselves as individuals and will then be able to compare/contrast their own experiences with those of a minority culture.
3) Students will demonstrate an understanding of individual identity as expressed through symbolic elements as found through various forms of literature.
Knowledge and Skills.
Reading: Students will explore the Native American experience through various forms of literature. Students will be encouraged to identify the purpose of an author’s work and analyze the meaning of said work in context with their own understanding and experiences.
Interpretation: Students will identify symbolic elements as experienced through the literature and discuss the meanings of these symbols.
Empathy: Students will be asked to identify a totem animal for themselves and define the importance of that animal in relation to their own identity. Then students will research the Native American meaning for their chosen animal to compare/contrast their own interpretation of animal power with that of another culture.
Analyzing: Students will be asked to analyze the reason for events and actions that occur in the reading. Students will also be asked to examine their responses to these events at two separate dates to see if their thoughts or ideas have altered from the original writing.
Writing skills: Students will be expected to write on numerous aspects of the information and impressions experienced in the classroom. Students will be asked to write for exploration, information, interpretation and understanding. Students will also learn to edit their work for spelling and grammatical errors using computer spell check and/or peer editing review.
Summarizing: Students will learn the art of summarizing. Summarizing includes the identification of who, what, where, when, why and how in written work.
Supporting evidence from a text: Students will learn how to support their interpretations and impressions of literature by including textual examples in their written work. “This is the event, this is the way I understand the event.”
Maine Learning Result connection
A. Process of Reading
9. Identify the philosophical assumptions and basic beliefs underlying a particular text.
10. Analyze how the cultural context of a literary work is evidenced in the text.
B. Literature and Culture
1. Distinguish between the purpose of a literary work and the personal response of the reader.
3. Make abstract connections (thoughts, ideas, values) between their own lives and circumstances
represented in various works.
11. Examine, evaluate and elaborate on universal themes in literature, using reading and viewing to
explain how themes are developed and achieved.
C. Language and Images
4. Compare form, meaning and value of different kinds of symbol systems.
Formal and Informal Assessments.
K-W-L Strategy – A K-W-L strategy should be used for two purpose’. The first K-W-L should be to create the concept of what a student’s own identity is. What do they consider important? What is important to believe in? How do we express the ideas of what is important? How do we express ourselves at all? How do we as Americans view, influence or create ideas, ideals and communication?
The second K-W-L should be done as students explore each new concept. In this case the concept is the Native American existence.
Reading Logs/summary homework sheets – Reading logs will be used to have students initialize their thoughts, understandings and/or questions regarding the literature. Through summarizing students will identify and describe the same themes in the reading of each piece of literature. Each element of summary should only be a few sentences, 1 paragraph at the most. When summarizing students will need to answer the following:
Who: Who are the characters in the story? Describe the main characters as individuals and tell what appears to be important to each.
What: What is the story about?
Where: What is the geographical location of the story? How does this impact the story?
When: What is the historical timeframe of this story? What evidence in the story lets you know this?
Why: Why do you think the author wrote this piece? What is the message, thought or idea the author is trying to get across?
How: How does the story affect you? What are your thoughts, impressions or questions? Do you feel like this story could ever be about you?
Reading and reading logs will be done as homework each night on every piece of literature explored in the class regarding the Native American experience. By identifying a set list of what thoughts and ideas students need to address, there is a common theme running through all the literature of understanding and exploring literature.
Research Project – To set up the historical understanding of events in the Native American experience students will choose one of four research topics. This background information will give students an educated perspective from which to apply the emotions , expressions and thoughts experienced of Native Americans as expressed through the literature we will be reading. Research targets are:
A. Indian Removal Acts of the 1800’s
B. The Formation of Indian Schools in the 1800 – 1900’s
C. The importance of totems in the N.A. culture
D. The purpose and practice of the creation of Indian Reservations
Individual presentations are limited to 5-10 minutes. There will be a group grade as well as an individual grade.
By having the students explore, collaborate according to groups and research the information on their own, students will be taking charge of their own learning. Students will be given the opportunity to choose their research area but the teacher will maintain the final say so the is a homogenous mix of ability levels in each group.
Reading response reflections– These are formal assignments done as homework. Reading responses are more concrete forms of thought and expression utilized to coalesce comprehension between pieces of literature. The process should have students collaborating in small groups talking as one large group to explore the meaning, interpretation and purpose of the work. As a formal writing process students should be given time for peer review and editing of work to produce a polished final piece that explores the concepts in literature and correlates their understanding of literature. Reading responses will center around focused questions and encourage in-depth development of thoughts, actions and connections between works of literature. Reading response reflection questions include but are not limited to the following:
1) What is important to the character(s)? How do you know this? How is this different or the same to how
we demonstrate what is important to us?
a. Coyote Steals Light
b. White Buffalo Calf Woman Brings the First Peace Pipe
c. Monument In Bone
2) How does the author create a mood for the literature? Why would an author want to portray a particular mood in context to the message of the story? Compare the use of mood and tone in the following three stories. How is the mood set and what effect does the mood have to the message?
a. Dear John Wayne
c. Man to Send Rain Clouds
3) What does the author or character(s) think or feel about themselves? What in the text makes you think this?
a. Dear John Wayne
b. The Return of the Buffalo
c. Adventures of an Indian Princess
4) What influences the writer/character’s perception of what is important? How do you know this?
a. On Lenape Land
b. The Return of the Buffalo
5) How is the character feeling, what are they thinking or what understanding/ideas do you come to from the characters actions? Tell of a time when you may have felt the same way. What were the events? What was the outcome? How did you feel after this event and how has this event affected the way you see yourself?
Socratic Seminar – Socratic seminar can be utilized for any piece of work and can be either formal or informal. For those individuals not participating actively in the seminar discussion participation can be given a grade by having them fill out a points made/points missed sheet as the discussion progresses. All students must and should be held accountable for participating in their own unique way in classroom discussion. “Points made/points missed” sheets can be collected by the teacher at the end of class and can be pooled by the teacher to create a focus study sheet for exams or cumulative written assessment. The Socratic Seminar should be given focus questions to start the student discussion based on the enduring understanding goals for the unit. These questions should only be utilized if the students are slow to start their own exploration of the story as the purpose of a Socratic Seminar is to allow students the autonomy of exploring literature in their own way. This is a formal or informal assessment.
Symbolic Dictionary – As students read they will somehow graphically illustrate symbolic elements from the stories. The Native American culture uses (and used) visual and oral symbolism to convey meaning and understanding in lieu of a written language. After open discussion on each piece of literature, symbolic elements will be briefly focused on and kept in their writing/reading logs. These symbolic illustrations can be collected at the end of the unit and copied. Students will have a tactile example of their interpretation of meaning through symbolic elements similar to the Native American experience. They will also use a collage from the beginning of class to compare their idea of symbolism before and after the unit.
Formal Reflections on Enduring Understanding– reflection assessment pieces will be expected on the enduring understandings and what the students have discovered through the exploration of the Native American Literature. Requirements include evidence from the texts explored to support the student’s thoughts, perceptions, understandings and ideas.
A final and formal writing piece will include multiple drafts with peer revision and a focus on grammatical correctness as well as the paper having a professional appearance.
Final Reflection: How has the Native American identity changed through history as seen through the literature we have explored?
What is important to believe in?
How do they express what they believe in?
What does it mean to be successful?
How does every culture change over time?
1) Reading of literature
2) Focused reading responses – large semi-formal writing pieces that start processing connection between literature and enduring understandings.
3) Socratic Seminar
4) Totem exploration with students choosing and researching a totem animal for themselves. (http://www2.itesas.net/~sparrow/totems.htm) Maybe a totem pole?
5) K-W-L strategies
6) Symbolic representation/graphic recreation
7) Symbolic representation and definition
8) Research project on specified connections to the Native American experience
9) Presentation of researched information
Pens, paper and notebooks
Copies of the following: The following stories range from historical folktales to contemporary works that all have graphic images that represent thoughts, feelings and emotions in the Native American experience. Discussion of the symbolic elements as they are displayed in the stories will assist students in their final culminating project the “symbolic dictionary”.
1) White Buffalo Calf Woman Brings the First Peace Pipe (from http://www.kstrom.net/isk/arvol/lamedeer.html)
White Buffalo Calf Woman is a creation myth that has a common tie through most tribes. Though creation myths and symbolic elements vary greatly from region to region depending on the availability of natural resources the story of the White Buffalo Calf Woman is a common story through most of Native American culture. This folktale dispels one of the popular myths about the place of women among the tribe. The fact that White Buffalo Calf Woman contains incredible supernatural power demonstrates the awe that the Native American culture held for the mysticism of woman.
Class discussion can be developed from what our cultural role of men and women is to what our perception of the role of men and women is in the Native American society. After reading the folktale, perceptions can be readdressed to see if they have changed in any way.
2) Monument in Bone, Phil George from Teaching Multicultural Literature in the Secondary Classroom.
This is a brief poem describing the respect of dance and chanting given to the bones of a long dead buffalo. The poem’s central theme is that of respect and honor, two of the central themes in the Native American culture. This poem should be done together as an initialization activity for the reading logs. Working collaboratively on the who, what, where, when, why and how will model for students how to summarize.
3) Coyote Steals Light, from Native American Myths
This is a 1 page trickster tale/creation myth, a very short read. Animal symbolism plays a large part in the Native American tradition. The character of coyote and eagle can be discussed openly to initialize thoughts on symbolic elements in a culture. What do symbolic elements represent and for what reasons, characteristics are symbolic elements chosen? This is also a traditional oral history tale. Students can discuss the absence of a written language and how information is transferred from generation to generation without a written language to do so.
4) The Man to Send Rain Clouds, Leslie Mormon Silko
This is a short story that opens with two grandsons discovering their Grandfather has passed away. The story follows the traditions and rituals that are followed by the family to honor their deceased relative. The story also enters the concept of cultural conflict when the grandchildren ask the local priest for Holy Water so their grandfather will not be thirsty on his journey to the Happy Hunting Ground. This is a contemporary story but displays the respect, symbolic ritual and historical background of a culture immersed in respect and honor.
5) Dear John Wayne, Louise Erdrich (taken from Teaching Literature in the Secondary Classroom)
This is a poem written by an acclaimed contemporary author who has won numerous awards for her depictions of the struggles of Native Americans to maintain their own identity in the much more powerful, pervasive post-European culture of modern America. This poem tells of some teenagers who go to watch a John Wayne film that they leave feeling as though their identity was of less value because of the message they gleaned from Hollywood. The story deals with personal identity and conflict between their own selves and the perceptions of those around them.
6) Adventures of an Indian Princess, Patricia Riley
This is another contemporary story about the Native American experience in the early fifties. The young girl in the story has been removed from her Native American home by the states Human Service organization and placed with a well meaning if culturally ignorant couple. Students can easily see both sides of the hypothetical fence regarding interpretation and action of the child or the family. This is an excellent story to use in a Socratic Seminar just for the possible differences in view and empathetic understanding that are bound to come from a diverse student population.
7) Snares, Louise Erdrich
This is a contemporary short story set in the mid to late fifties. This story contains a story line that is traceable back to the days of the original European settlers; removal of Indians from their land. The story involves peer pressure, honor, justice and respect as evidenced through events that take place in the story. The main character eventually sets a rabbit snare for a young boy who kidnapped and humiliated a hiself and a female friend. Though the youth gets trapped in the snare, it does not kill him and the main character decides that the final fate of the boy is up to the gods. If the boy is to die for his deed against the main character then he will die, if he is not meant to die, then he will not. The main character upheld his honor by seeking retribution for the wrong done to a woman of the tribe. (The boys shaved her head to humiliate the woman into signing over her share of tribal land.)
8) The Return of the Buffalo, Leslie Marmon Silko
This is a contemporary short story about a Native American who has become a powerful oral speaker. The speaker talks about how the European descendents have created their own fate by destroying Mother Earth. The story describes how time and the spirit world will one day reunite the Native American people with the land that is rightfully theirs. The speaker explains that all the negative, heinous events that middle class Americans are so prone to practice on themselves is all out of retribution of the Native American spirit world for the usurpation of the land that belongs to the Native people.
9) On Lenape Land, Joseph A. Bruchac from No Borders
This is a poem about the use and meaning of totem poles. This poem describes symbolic characters and alludes to their meaning and purpose of using symbolic elements in the Native American culture.
10) Animal properties as explored on http://www2.itesas.net/~sparrow/totems.htm This website contains a list of animal totems and their meanings as well as a brief introduction to the purpose, message and importance of totem animals in the Native American culture.
Library – photocopier, printer
Overhead sheets and pens
Research Project – The finalized research project will have a group evaluation as well as a rubric.
Summary Homework sheets. Every night students will be required to fill out summary homework sheets on the 6 elements of summarizing.
Grades A – they worked on all 6 elements with thoroughness and accuracy
C – Summary sheets were worked on. All 6 elements were at least attempted
F – homework sheets were not done at all
Open Discussion. Discussion will occur every day on the literature read. Students should come prepared for class with the summary information so even those who do not volunteer will have thoughts written down that can be said if the teacher needs to call on the quieter voices.
Socratic Seminar. Socratic seminar will be utilized at least once. Student reflection and input will be necessary to gauge if this exercise will work with a particular group of students. Some students enjoy the independence of Socratic Seminar, some do not: This method should only be utilized if students work the seminar to its intended purpose. Points made/points missed sheets should be given to students NOT participating in the seminar itself. This way the teacher can make sure that all students are paying attention and learning something from the seminar.
Symbolism Dictionary – the symbolism dictionary has many purposes.
1) The group discusses summarization information of the story/poem
2) Students gather annotated information to be used in the final essay assessment.
3) Visual learners see the general of the story written on the board/overhead
4) Visual and kinesthetic learners benefit from recreating the graphic component of the theme or concept
5) Auditory learners benefit from the vocalization of their own thoughts and understanding of the story with their peers
The symbolism dictionary will be separated into four segments
1. Summarization of the story with emphasis on the symbolic elements and the interpretation of those elements
2. What is the meaning of one particular symbol in context to the entire theme or message of the story?
3. Draw/collage the symbol
4. Explain by words or pictures how the urban, North-East middle class culture exemplifies the same meaning.
Culminating Assessment: Compare and contrast the way culture influences the way we express ourselves as individuals. Make connections between yourself and the characters from the literature we have read.
What is important to believe in?
How do we express what we believe in?
What does success mean in a culture and how do we symbolize the idea of success? In our
own culture? In the Native American culture?
How does one’s identity in a culture influence their understanding of another culture?
What role does history and cultural conflict play in shaping the identity of the individual
In the Native American culture as explored through the literature?
Rough timeline for the Native American Unit
Day by Day Break down of the Native American Unit
for Western Maine ETEP 2002
Day 1 1) Start with a K-W-L strategy on "What do we know about the Native American culture?" Make sure to direct the topic to historical events as well as social and tribal practices. Include interpersonal relationships and symbolic elements.
2) Explain the research idea tell the class that they are going to explore the history of the Native American experience so that historical events can be connected to the literature that is going to be studied. Assign research topics to students, pay attention to groups so high and low performers are together.
3) Model the presentation expectations and discuss how a good audience behaves. Give your own "presentation" (direct teaching of) a brief history of Native American literature. Start with the definition of oral tradition and creation myths to the resurgence of popular teaching wanting to incorporate the Native American struggle and expression into schools beginning in the mid 1980's. (Teaching Literature in the Secondary Classroom, 456)
4) Hand out the final essay assessment question. Tell the class not to be concerned with it now, we will be spending 6 weeks working together to gather the information, supportive evidence and explanation to write the essay.
Day 2 Research Day:
10 min – in class. What is citing sources? What information do we need from sources we take information from? How do we cite sources?
To the Library – research and photocopy everything you can find on your topic. Don’t assimilate information here.
Day 3 Group Work in class
1) Get into your groups, what aspect of your information is each person in your group going to cover? How is your group going to separate focus and information to cover the most in the least amount of time?
2) Outline each presenter’s information and make sure each person has copies who needs them. – This is a great time to utilize volunteers in the class
3) Start writing and practicing presentations to your group
Day 4 Set up the mood for the presentations by having N.A. artifacts, foods and music. Explain the harvesting practices of N.A. as opposed to European Americans. Have a bowl of long grain wild rice, paper bowls and shells. Let N.A. chants and music play while the class files in and prepares for presentations.
Everyone take notes on the important events being discussed. Last 20 minutes of each class will be pooling of thoughts and impressions to overhead the highlights of each group’s presentations.
Day 5 Presentations cont’d. Again set the mood with music, maple candy and water. Tell students to flavor the water with the maple sugar and tell about the importance of maple sap a preservative, additive and flavoring in food.
Last 20 minutes, culminating information on each report theme.
If time, now that we know some of the history, lets talk about the people. When you think of N.A. ‘s what pictures come to mind…why?
Begin discussion of symbolism in societies. Talk about our own identity in society – Concept web of what is important – focus on the 4 elements 1) Expression (music, art) 2) Beliefs (What is important to believe in) 3) Success (What does it mean to be successful, how do we show our success? 4) Identity itself (How do we identify ourselves within the confines of our culture?) – Collage of your idea of the American teenager
Day 6 1) Discuss collages – What do you see? Is that thought the way the artist intended it? What seems to be important to us?
Let’s move on to symbolic elements and their meanings as expressed through literature.
2) Monument in Bone, write what your first impressions are. What seems to be important to the writer/character? How is this expressed? What challenges does this person face that influence the actions and thoughts as expressed through the poem?
3) Introduce format for symbolic dictionary. Working on an overhead find 1 symbolic element and work through the process together.
4) Tell the students to find a second symbolic element and do this one on their own. Come back together to discuss and illustrate ideas on overheads.
Day 7 1) Have symbols up on the board: US flag, WTC, Eagle in flight Have students write briefly what their thoughts are on each of these symbols
2) discuss what symbolism is and why we use symbolism in cultures.
3) Read in class Coyote Steals Light – Who does Coyote represent in context to the story? Why did the N.A. use coyote as a central figure in their oral tradition?
4) Discuss what oral tradition is
5) Discuss Animal representations in NA culture. Why animals, what does each animal represent?
6) List 10 characteristics of the teacher. Do this together, it’s fun to let the kids see how close they come to how you view yourself.
7) List 10 character traits of students. What animal would be a good representation of the teacher? Why? What animal would be a good representation of you? Why? Research the meaning of that animal on http://www2.itesas.net/~sparrow/totems.htm
(this activity will take about 30 minutes)
8) Read On Lenape Land. Write immediate reaction. Discuss how, what and why of symbolic elements in the story. Does the use of symbolic elements affect your response to the poem? What is the message the author is trying to get across?
9) Return to the story of Coyote, could this story be told in one descriptive picture?
Day 8 1) Discuss perceptions and what we know of the roles of men and women in the tribe. Perceptions, stereotypes, ideas
2) Read White Buffalo Calf Woman … Make notes on summary info, elements of symbolism as you read.
3) Discuss as a group what is important to the culture? How do they express what is important?
4) How did our thoughts and perceptions change from the beginning of class? What surprised you?
Reading quiz #1 What is important to the character(s)? How do you know this? How is this different or the same to how we demonstrate what is important to us?
A. Coyote Steals Light
B. White Buffalo Calf Woman Brings the First Peace Pipe
C. Monument In Bone
If time work on 3 elements of symbolism from this story for your dictionary.
Read Man to Send Rain Clouds for homework, make notes as you go – summarize, symbolic elements
Day 9 Discuss Man to Send Rain Clouds. What is important to the people in this story? Why is this important? What symbolic elements are communicating that importance to the reader? Look at the written aspect, why is this story broken up into 4 chapters? What is that a symbol of?
3 symbolic elements for your dictionary. – Homework
Explore the concept of tone, writers intent and interpretation of literature. Why do people write? How much is the reader responsible for when it comes to the purpose of a story?
Discuss the concept of a Socratic Seminar, explain what it is and how it works.
Practice Socratic Seminar with Dear John Wayne.
End class with discussion of 2 symbolic elements from the poem, work on dictionaries.
Socratic Seminar on Snares tomorrow. Read, take notes and come prepared!
Day 10 1) Hand out and explain “Points made/points missed” sheets
20 minutes for seminar itself. (Have questions ready in case students are slow to start. What is the message of this story? What symbolic elements did you see and what do they mean? Etc.)
2) Get class back together and discuss or have them write the message from the author over both pieces. (Both were written by Louise Erdrich) Discuss how students would feel about being one of the white men as described in the poem and the perspective of the Indian in both positions. What was the reaction of the priest in Snares. Was the character wrong in his actions? According to whose perspective?
3 elements of symbolism from Snares for the dictionaries. Work on these when you are done the essay.
4) For homework write a 2 sided poem. Write from the perspective of the cowboy intent on chasing the Indians away from his ranch, write from the viewpoint of the Indian seeing the white man take his land from him.
Day 11 1) Read poems of those who are willing. Explore author’s intent in writing, voice, mood and perception. (15 minutes)
2) Quiz #2, it is OK to use the stories and notes to reference.
1) How does the author create a mood for the literature? Why would an author want to portray a particular mood in context to the message of the story? Compare the use of mood and tone in the following three stories. How is the mood set and what effect does the mood have to the message?
a. Dear John Wayne
c. Man to Send Rain Clouds
Collaborate for 15 minutes on gathering evidence from the text that supports the ideas of mood, tone and intent. (20 minutes)
3) Write the quiz in class – read when done.
Day 12 1) Read Return of the Buffalo, take notes on symbolic elements, their meanings, the authors use of tone, mood and what the author’s intent might be. What is the theme that you understand?
2) On overhead, project the tone, evidence that supports the tone; the theme and evidence to support the theme; mood, etc.
3) How is history evidenced in the writing? What do past events and historical information have to do with the purpose and theme of this story? Let’s revisit all that wonderful information everyone researched. How does that information tie in to the story we are reading?
4) 3 symbolic elements listed and defined on overhead, have students illustrate and make connections in class.
5) Homework – Read and take notes on Adventures of an Indian Princess. 2nd Socratic Seminar tomorrow
a. Keep in mind history, expression, symbolism and the clash of cultures!
Day 13 1) Socratic Seminar points made/points missed
Discuss the idea of culture-clash as represented in this story. What is important to each person? How is this represented? What are the goals of each character and how does each character express these goals? How do we as readers interpret the actions of the characters in the story?
2) Symbolism dictionaries will be due next class. At least 3 symbols from every short story, 2 symbols from every poem. Test grade. Assign rubric for depth, clarity of information and connection to their own ideas of expression.
Day 14 1) Collect dictionaries. Assign rubric and let students tell you what they think their grade should be.
2) Start working to gather evidence and ideas for the final essay assessment. Groups of 3.
3) Outline your essay then start writing. Double space but the rough draft is due next class so you can get feedback from those in class.
Due to all the collaborative work and feedback time I am giving you, there should be NO reason everyone does not earn an A+!
Day 15 Peer Feedback day: In groups of two, read each others essays. Look for transitions between sentences, continuance of theme or concepts and supporting evidence from all texts to support understanding and answering of the Essential Questions. How does culture influence the identity of the individual?
1) How do people express what they think is important to believe in?
2) How does our own cultural identity influence or affect our understanding of others?
3) How does one’s culture influence an individual’s idea of success?
Grades will be based off content, supporting evidence from texts, depth of concept exploration, mechanics and fluidity of the final draft. Due at the beginning of next class.