1.3.4 The Treat of International Terrorism On the background of diminishing military threats to the national security, non-conventional threats, in particular the globalization of international terrorism and proliferation of chemical, biological, radioactive and nuclear arms, including their acquisition by non-state entities, are growing.
Reduction of the international terrorism threat and prevention of proliferation of arms of mass destruction are possible only by concerted and rapid actions on international level that requires Moldova’s participation based on its international commitments. Additionally to the actions undertaken in the context of international cooperation, the Republic of Moldova is implementing domestic anti-terrorism measures.
1.3.5 Threats that derive from human activity and Natural Disasters The threats that derive from human activity and that may impact the national security of the Republic of Moldova are: explosions and conflagrations; accidents at power stations, at plants that use radioactive and chemical agents, at transportation enterprises, as well as cross-border effects of such accidents.
In the South-eastern European region, where the Republic of Moldova is situated, the potential danger may be caused by the obsolete equipment of several nuclear power stations and large enterprises that use dangerous chemicals in their industrial process.
Natural disasters that may determine force major in the Republic of Moldova are earthquakes, floods, landslides and other of a natural origin.
1.3.6 Economic Threats Because of its small size and increasing economic interdependency between the Republic of Moldova and the global economic system, a global or regional economic crisis or instability on the traditional or priority foreign markets may considerably impact the country’s economy. The major risk factors of economic origin that could pose threat to the national security of the Republic of Moldova are generated by the excessive and unilateral dependency of local electric and energy systems as well as of gas distribution networks on foreign monopolies in the filed. This dependency, at the same time, constitutes the internal vulnerability of the state.
1.3.7 Social Threats Drug addiction, alcoholism, HIV/AIDS spread, and other contagious highly dangerous diseases for the society represent a threat to the welfare, social and political stability of the country.
1.3.8 IT Threat Instable and dysfunctional information systems may pose threat to the national security. Progressive expansion of electronic information systems in the Republic of Moldova and the high degree of interconnection with the international information systems facilitate the criminogenic factor in the field of IT and increase the vulnerability of such systems, including in the spheres of primordial importance for the national security.
1.3.9 Internal vulnerabilities The above-mentioned threats interconnect with the domestic vulnerabilities. The effects of these vulnerabilities may determine accentuation and manifestation of existing threats as well as generate new ones to the national security. Overlapping and combination of such effects may negatively impact the national security. Neglect, cease of monitoring and loss of control over the vulnerabilities may transform them into threats to national security and may trigger domestic instability. The negative effects on the national security caused by domestic vulnerabilities may be multiple, interdependent, dynamic and many-sided.
The main domestic vulnerabilities of the Republic of Moldova are:
Existence of a range of factors that intercalate and favor the persistence of the aggressive separatism in the context of yet unsolved Transnistrian conflict. These vulnerability constitutes the impossibility to administrate the Eastern territory of the country, lack of control over the Transnistrian segment of the Moldovan-Ukrainian state border, continued illegal and uncontrolled production of military equipment and armament, inability to control and manage the entire air space of the country.
The excessive and unilateral dependency of the Republic of Moldova on foreign monopolistic energy systems represents a major internal vulnerability. This vulnerability may easily grow into a threat to the national security. Such also include the broad possibilities of accumulation of the foreign capital coming from economic systems where market economy rules are not secured or underdeveloped in the national economic sectors of major importance.
Continuing problems within the energy system of the country that may cause disruptions in this system. Insufficient protection of energy sector objects.
Lasting character of the transition period that continues to cause negative economic, financial, social effects and delays in structural reforms.
Economic migration, unemployment, population aging and low birthrate phenomena. Lasting and complex character of the reduction of poverty process, existing tendencies of social polarization, as well as upholding of gray economy that may generate tensions and general discontent among people.
The existing discrepancy between the actual needs and efforts spent by the law enforcement and special agencies to combat criminality, particularly, cross-border criminality.
Corruption and management deficits within the state administration.
Slow development of the informational infrastructure and low competitiveness in the IT sector, low quality of information processing and unsatisfactory use of information of national interest, lack of quick react capabilities on information that is bias and distorts the realities of the Republic of Moldova. Internal vulnerabilities also include maintaining the connectivity between national and former Soviet Union informational systems, and perpetuation of inconstancies in protecting classified information.
Continued use of obsolete technologies that may be hazardous for people and lead to ecological disasters.
Reduced capacity of preventing ecological disasters and natural calamities (land slides, floods, earthquakes, etc.), as well as addressing the consequences thereof.
Emigration of highly qualified specialists and wakening of the country’s development potential.