National Gallery Technical Bulletin Volume 33, 2012 Colourless Powdered Glass as an Additive in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century European Paintings Marika Spring Introduction


Artist, painting title, date and location



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Artist, painting title, date and locationf

Areas where powdered glass was found and estimated particle size

Glass type

Na2O

MgO

Al2O3

SiO2

P2O5e

SO3

Cl

K2O

CaO

TiO2

MnO

FeO

ITALIAN PAINTINGS











































Justus of Ghent and workshop, ‘Music’ (NG756) probably 1470s, probably Urbino.

Red of carpet, with red lake.b

soda ash

11.4

3.9

4.9g

60.5

0.6

2.3d

0.7

3.2

10.3

0.2

1.2

0.8

Lorenzo Costa, ‘A Concert’ (NG2486), c. 1488–90, Bologna.

Off-white priming, with a little lead white; black background, with coal black and a little verdigris; underpaint of marbled ledge, with lead white, a little red lake and brown; purple cloak of figure at the right, with red lake and a little lead white in the upper layer and with coal black, a little red lake, vermilion and lead-tin yellow in under-paint, 10–30 µm.b

soda ash

11.2

3.7

1.7

66.0

0.3

2.9d

0.9

2.2

9.6

0.1

0.8

0.6

Giovanni Santi, ‘The Virgin and Child’ (NG751), c. 1488, probably Urbino.

Crimson drapery underneath the Christ Child, with red lake.a

soda ash

7.9

2.8

1.8

68.9

0.4

0.7

0.9

2.6

12.2

0.1

1.0

0.6

Master of the Story of Griselda, ‘The Story of Griselda, Part III: Reunion’ (NG914), c. 1494, probably Siena.

Grey of horse, with lead white and black, 5–10 μm.a

soda ash

11.2

2.9

4.5h

61.5

0.5

0.3

0.9

3.8

11.6

0.0

1.8

1.0

Pietro Perugino, ‘Three Panels from an altarpiece, Certosa’ (NG288.1-3) c. 1496–1500.

Pale yellow priming, with lead white and lead-tin yellow; Raphael’s red robe, with red lake, 5–10 µm.a

soda ash; upper row, red paint; lower row, priming (slightly leached.

11.2
7.1

3.4
2.9

5.0g
4.0h

62.6
62.2

0.7
1.2

0.6
6.3d

0.6
1.1

3.6
3.4

9.1
9.1

0.2
0.2

2.4
2.0

0.7
1.0

Lorenzo Costa and ‘Gianfrancesco Maineri, The Virgin and Child Enthroned between a Soldier Saint, and Saint John the Baptist (La Pala Strozzi) (NG1119), probably 1499, probably Ferrara.

Off-white priming, with a little lead white; Virgin’s red dress, with red lake; grey sword, with lead white and galena; grey of architecture, with lead white and bone black; Saint John’s red cloak, with red lake and azurite, 10–30 µm.b

soda ash

11.6

3.8

1.5

66.7

0.4

1.2d

0.9

2.1

9.8

0.1

1.4

0.5

Francesco Napoletano (?), ‘An Angel in Green with a Vielle’ (NG1661), c.1490–9, Milan.

Red sleeve of angel, with red lake, 20–30 µm.b

soda ash

10.4

3.3

0.9

66.3

0.4

1.3d

0.8

5.9

9.3

0.2

1.0

0.4

Vincenzo Foppa. ‘The Adoration of the Kings’ (NG729), perhaps c. 1500, Lombardy.

Translucent priming layer, with a little lead white, 20–30 µm.a

wood ash

0.6

6.1

2.3

51.0

4.1

5.5d

0.4

13.1

15.6

0.2

0.9

0.6

Workshop of Francesco Francia, ‘The Virgin and Child with Two Saints’ (NG638), probably c. 1500, Bologna.

Brown window ledge, with red earth and lead white, 10–30 µm.b

soda ash

10.8

3.5

1.4

67.5

0.4

1.1

1.0

2.4

10.4

0.1

0.5

0.8

Michelangelo, ‘The Entombment’ (NG790), c. 1500–1, Rome

Pale yellow priming, with lead white and a little lead-tin yellow, 5–20 μm.a

soda ash

12.5

4.3

1.4

68.5

0.7

0.6

1.0

1.7

8.3

0

0.6

0.4

Raphael, ‘The Crucified Christ with the Virgin Mary, Saints and Angels (The Mond Crucifixion)’ (NG3943), c. 1502–3, Umbria.

Pale yellow priming, with lead white and a little lead-tin yellow; Saint John’s red drapery, with red lake; golden sun ray, with orpiment and a little lead-tin yellow; brown shadow of the drapery of the angel in yellow, with black, vermilion, red earth and red lake, 10–30 µm.a

soda ash

10.4

3.4

1.0

69.9

0.2

0.3

0.9

2.2

10.7

0.0

0.5

0.4

Raphael, ‘The Madonna and Child with Saint John the Baptist and Saint Nicholas of Bari (The Ansidei Madonna)’ (NG1171), 1505, Umbria or Florence.

Pale yellow priming, with lead white and a little lead-tin yellow; dark purple underside of the canopy over the throne, with red lake, a little vermilion and black; Saint John’s red drapery, with red lake; pale grey architecture, with lead white and bismuth metal powder; mordant for the gilded decoration on the throne (used alone); yellow ‘wood’ on the throne, with lead-tin yellow and a little red earth, 10–20 µm.a

soda ash; upper row, high Al (sand); lower row, low Al (pebbles)

11.8
10.9

2.4
3.2

5.0h
1.5

63.6
66.6

0.5
0.2

1.0
1.4d

1.2
0.0

3.5
2.4

8.1
10.4

0.2
0.1

1.6
1.0

1.0
0.5

Raphael, ‘Saint John the Baptist Preaching’ (NG 6480), 1505, Umbria or Florence (predella of The Ansidei Altarpiece).

Pale yellow priming, with lead white and a little lead-tin yellow; grey hose of figure fourth from the left, with lead white and coal black; red of cloak of figure second from the left, with red lake and vermilion; brownish-green foreground, with lead white, lead-tin yellow and a little azurite and verdigris, 10–20 µm.a

soda ash; upper row, high Al (sand); lower row, low Al (pebbles)

11.5
8.7

3.0
3.0

5.5h
2.2

65.6
67.2

0.6
0.8

0.5
3.7d

1.2
0.9

3.1
2.6

7.3
9.6

0.2
0.2

1.1
1.0

0.6
0.5

Raphael, ‘The Procession to Calvary’ (NG2919), c. 1504–5, Umbria or Florence.

Pale yellow priming, with lead white and a little lead-tin yellow; pale pink underpaint of Saint John’s red drapery, with lead white and faded red lake; greenish foreground, with lead white, lead-tin yellow, yellow earth and azurite; orange-yellow tunic of the man on the brown horse, with lead-tin yellow and yellow earth, 5–15 μm.a

soda ash

10.9

3.4

5.1h

64.4

0.6

0.8

0.9

3.0

8.7

0.2

1.4

0.7

Lorenzo Costa, ‘High Altarpiece, Oratory of S. Pietro in Vincoli’ (NG629), 1505, probably Bologna, transferred from panel.

Pale yellow priming, with lead white and a little lead-tin yellow; deep red of Saint Philip’s cloak, with red lake and a little lead white and vermilion; brownish-grey architecture, with lead white, verdigris, lead-tin yellow and galena (lead sulphide), 5–20 µm.b

soda ash

12.5

3.8

1.7

66.8

0.3

0.7

0.9

2.2

10.0

0.1

0.5

0.4

Attributed to Pietro Perugino, ‘Christ crowned with Thorns’ (NG691), c. 1500–05.

Pale yellow priming, with lead white and a little lead-tin yellow, c.10 µm.a

soda ash

11.8

3.0

4.5h

60.3

1.1

2.7d

0.9

4.7

7.8

0.2

2.1

0.9

Raphael, ‘The Madonna of the Pinks (La Madonna dei Garofani)’ (NG6596), c. 1506–7, Florence.

Pale yellow priming, with lead white and a little lead-tin yellow, 5–10 μm.a.

soda ash

11.5

3.2

0.7

70.7

0.4

1.0

0.9

2.2

8.8

0.0

0.2

0.4

Raphael, ‘Saint Catherine of Alexandria’ (NG168), c. 1507, Florence.

Pale yellow priming, with lead white and a little lead-tin yellow; Saint Catherine’s red cloak, with red lake; yellow-brown paint of wheel, with lead white, red earth, umber and a little azurite and vermilion; brownish-green of the background landscape, with lead-tin yellow, azurite, yellow earth and a little black, 10-40 µm.a

soda ash

11.5

2.8

4.1h

64.3

0.6

0.4

0.0

3.7

8.8

0.2

2.4

0.7

Marco Marziale, ‘The Virgin and Child with Saints’ (NG804), 1507, Venice or Cremona.

Red of Virgin’s robe, with red lake and white in the underpaint, and red lake only in upper layers, 10–30 μm.a

soda ash, leached

9.7

3.2

1.0

71.5

0.3

0.3

0.9

2.1

10.1

0.0

0.5

0.3

Pietro Perugino, ‘The Virgin and Child with Saints Jerome and Francis’ (NG1075), probably c. 1507–15.

Pale yellow priming, with lead white and a little lead-tin yellow; Saint Jerome’s red robe, with red lake, 10-20 µm.a

soda ash; upper row, high Al (sand); lower row, low Al (pebbles)

12.4
11.4

2
3.6

5.4h
1.1

68
62.4

0.6
0.1

0.2
7.7d

1.1
1.1

3.2
3.2

5.3
8.0

0.1
0.1

1.2
0.4

0.6
1.1

Raphael, ‘The Madonna and Child with the Infant Baptist (The Garvagh Madonna)’ (NG744), c. 1509–10.

Pale yellow priming, with lead white and a little lead-tin yellow; Virgin’s red dress, with red lake, 5–20 µm.b

soda ash, many particles very leached

13.5

1.9

5.4h

63.7

0.5

1.0

1.0

3.8

6.0

0.1

2.2

1.0

Gerolamo dai Libri, ‘The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne’ (NG748), 1510–18, Verona

Priming, with some lead white; underpaint of the ‘cangiante’ drapery of the angel on the left, 10–30 µm.a

soda ash, leached

8.1

3.2

1.9

67.1

0.5

0.3

0.4

3.7

12.7

0.1

1.5

0.4

Francesco Francia, ‘The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and other Saints’ (NG179), c. 1510–12, Bologna, transferred from panel.

Dark purple shadow in Saint Anne’s robe, with red lake, a little ultramarine and a little lead white, 10–30 μm.b

soda ash

9.3

2.7

2.0

67.0

0.5

0.9

0.6

6.3

9.1

0.1

1.0

0.6

Giovanni Battista da Faenza, ‘The Incredulity of Saint Thomas’ (NG1051), c. 1510–12, Faenza.

Priming; mainly glass with a little lead white and lead-tin yellow, 5–30 µm.b

soda ash

10.5

3.7

1.2

65.9

0.3

2.6d

1.2

1.9

11.3

0.1

0.6

0.7

Giovanni Battista da Faenza, ‘The Virgin and Child in Glory’ (NG282), c. 1512–16, Faenza.

Priming, mainly glass with a little lead white, 5–30 µm.b

soda ash

10.4

3.4

1.7

68.1

0.3

1.6d

0.9

2.0

10.5

0.2

0.5

0.5

Lodovico Mazzolino, ‘The Holy Family with Saint Francis’ (NG82), probably c. 1514–15, Ferrara.

Pale yellow priming, with lead white and a little lead-tin yellow.a

soda ash

9.0

3.0

1.1

69.5

0.4

0.7

0.7

2.4

10.5

0.1

2.3

0.5

Jacopo Pontormo, ‘Pharoah with his Butler and Baker’ (NG 6452), probably 1515, Florence.

Pale yellow priming, with lead white and lead-tin yellow; brown paint of architecture (Mn detected by XRF), 5–15 μm.a

soda ash

12.2

2.8

3.6

64.2

0.6

0.5

0.7

3.9

8.0

0.2

2.4

0.9

Bacchiacca, ‘Joseph pardons his Brothers’ (NG1219), probably 1515, Florence.

Pale yellow priming (a little), with lead white and lead-tin yellow (Mn detected by XRF), c. 5 μm.a

soda ash

12.3

2.7

4.5h

62.4

0.4

2.3d

0.8

3.3

7.6

0.2

2.6

0.9

Francesco Francia, ‘Mourning over the Dead Christ’ (NG2671), probably c. 1515–16, Bologna.

Pale yellow priming, with lead white and a little lead-tin yellow; purple-red cloak of woman at right edge, with red lake, c. 5 μm.b

soda ash

11.9

2.7

1.1

68.8

0.2

2.0d

1.1

2.3

8.9

0.1

0.5

0.4

Imitator of Mantegna, ‘Noli me Tangere’ (NG639), perhaps 1460–1550.

Pale yellow priming, with lead white and a little lead-tin yellow, 5–15 μm.a

soda ash

14.2

2.8

3.8

63.8

0.6

0.7

0.8

3.2

6.9

0.1

2.4

0.8

Sebastiano del Piombo, ‘The Raising of Lazarus’ (NG1), c. 1517–19, Rome, transferred from original panel.

Christ’s red cloak, with red lake, a little ultramarine and lead white; brownish-pink flesh of the leg of Lazarus, with lead white and earth pigments, 15–50 μm.a,i

Very leached, probably soda ash (low P). Upper row, red paint; lower row, flesh paint

0.1
0.1

2.1
1.5

6.2g
0.8

77.4
88.3

0.9
0.4

2.8d
0.8

1.1
1.1

1.3
0.5

6.3
5.4

0.2
0.0

1.0
0.4

0.7
0.8

Domenico Beccafumi, ‘Tanaquil’ (NG6368), c.1519, Siena, transferred from panel.

Pale yellow priming, with lead white and a little lead-tin yellow, 10–30 µm.b

soda ash (leached)

5.2

2.8

0.9

75.9

0.6

2.1D

1.2

2.9

7.5

0.0

0.4

0.4

Domenico Beccafumi, ‘Marcia’ (NG6369), c. 1519, Siena.

Pale yellow priming, with lead white and a little lead-tin yellow, 10–30 µm, one particle 80 µm.b

soda ash

11.6

2.5

0.9

66.4

0.3

4.7d

1.0

3.5

8.2

0.1

0.3

0.5

Domenico Beccafumi, ‘The Story of Papirius’ (NG1430), mid 1520s, Siena.

Translucent priming (glass only); red dress of woman at the centre of group below steps, mixed with red lake and azurite, 10–20 µm.a

soda ash

12.5

2.5

4.8h

62.4

0.7

1.2d

0.9

4.8

7.6

0.2

1.9

0.6

Ortolano, ‘Saints Sebastian, Roch and Demetrius’ (NG699), c. 1520, Ferrara, transferred from original panel.

Red drapery, with red lake and some vermilion, c. 5 µm.a

soda ash, many particles very leached

11.6

3.6

4.5g

65.6

0.4

1.1

0.7

2.5

8

0.1

1.6

0.5

Antonio da Vendri, ‘The Giusti Family of Verona(?)’ (NG749), probably c. 1520, Verona.

Translucent off white priming layer; mainly glass, with a little lead white, 20–40 µm.a

soda ash

12.0

2.7

1.0

70.2

0.3

1.0

1.2

3.8

7.1

0.0

0.3

0.4

Dosso Dossi, ‘The Adoration of the Kings’ (NG3924), probably 1527–9, Ferrara.

Pink cloak of one of the kings.a

soda ash (leached)

5.6

1.9

1.5

75.6

0.3

0.9

1.2

4.4

7.6

0.0

0.5

0.4

Bronzino, ‘The Virgin and Child with Saint John the Baptist and Saint Elizabeth’ (NG5280), probably c. 1540, Florence.

Virgin’s red sleeve, with lead white and red lake (Mn detected by XRF), 5–7 μm.b

soda ash

11.5

2.7

4.8g

62.3

0.2

3.4d

0.0

5.0

7.2

0.1

1.2

0.6

Bronzino, ‘Portrait of Piero de' Medici’ (NG1323), probably c. 1550–70.

Sitter’s red tunic, with red lake and a little lead white (Mn detected by XRF), 2–3 μm.a

soda ash (leached)

6.4

2.7

10.5g

60.8

0.8

4.3d

0.7

4.6

6.6

0.1

1.7

0.7

Annibale Carracci, ‘The Three Maries’ (NG2923), c. 1604.

Red of the Magdalen’s drapery, with red lake.a

soda ash (leached)

9.0

2.8

4.4g

60.7

0.2

0.2

0.9

6.7

13.3

0.2

0.9

0.6




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