National Assistance and Low Income in 1950



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B1 Poverty
Atkinson, A., Maynard, A., Trinder, C., "National Assistance and Low Income in 1950." Social Policy and Administration 15(1): 19-31. yes A1c B1 C1a

Atkinson, A. B. (1989). Poverty in York: A Re-analysis of Rowntree's 1950 Survey. Poverty and social security. Atkinson, Anthony Barnes., New York; London; Toronto and Sydney: Simon and Schuster International, Harvester Wheatsheaf.: 62-76. yes A1c B1 C1a

Atkinson, A. B., et al. (1983). Parents and children : incomes in two generations. London, Heinemann Educational. yes A1c B1 B11 C1a

Bryant, R., Bradshaw, J (1971). "Welfare rights and social action: The York Experience ". yes A1d B1 C1a

Connelly, P. A. (2011). "Flush with the Past: An Insight into Late Nineteenth-Century Hungate and its Role in Providing a Better Understanding of Urban Development." International Journal of Historical Archaeology 15(4): 607-616. yes A2 B1 B2 C1b

The discovery in 2007 of the remains of a late nineteenth- to early twentieth-century communal toilet block within the Block E excavations at Hungate, York, has delivered an important insight into the development of the Hungate area across this period. Re-contextualizing this discovery, from the local to the global and back again, challenges the official historical narratives of Hungate and the dissimilar archaeologies of the modern city.


CYC (1995). "Deprivation in the City of York and in Greater York based on the Townsend Index (includes maps, boundaries and enumeration districts 1991} ". yes A1e B2 B1 C1a

Dean, H. (1999). Begging questions: street-level economic activity and social policy failure, Policy Press. yes A1b B1 C3

Presents papers delivered at a Begging and Street Level Economic Activity national day workshop held in September 1998, sponsored by the Social Policy Association. Sets out the historical, political and social context of contemporary begging. Considers begging as global phenomenon and makes international comparisons. Presents the findings of a pilot study involving interviews with beggars in London, York and Edinburgh. Discusses public attitudes to begging and the place of begging in the spectrum of informal economic activity.
Digby, A. (1981). The relief of poverty in Victorian York: attitudes and policies. York, 1831-1981, 150 years of Scientific Endeavour and Social Change. C. H. Feinstein: p. 160-187 : map. A3 B1 C1a

Gazeley, I. and A. Newell (2000). "Rowntree revisited: Poverty in Britain, 1900." Explorations in Economic History 37(2): 174-188. yes A1c B1 C1a

We examine Rowntree's 1900 primary poverty line methodology and suggest that he incorporated assumptions about the needs of children and the extent of scale economics that lead him to overestimate the numbers in primary poverty. We modify Rowntree's primary poverty line using evidence from a contemporaneous household expenditure survey. The results suggest that the primary poverty head-count in York was considerably lower, at 5 to 6% of the population compared to Rowntree's 10%. Taken in conjunction with Feinstein's study of wages, this weakens the evidence for widespread poverty in Britain at the turn of the last century. (C) 2000 Academic Press.
Giles, K. and S. R. Jones (2011). "Poverty in Depth: New International Perspectives." International Journal of Historical Archaeology 15(4): 544-552. yes A2 B1 C1b

This volume on the archaeology of urban poverty arises from a three-day symposium hosted by York Archaeological Trust and the University of York in July 2009 to establish the wider intellectual framework for the investigation of the nineteenth- and twentieth-century archaeology of the Hungate neighborhood of York. In this opening article, the trajectory of medieval and post-medieval archaeology in Britain is contrasted with historical archaeology in the United States and Australia, and the influence of the pre-modern history of the Hungate neighborhood on its development since 1800 is explored.


Hatton, T. J. and R. E. Bailey (2000). "Seebohm Rowntree and the postwar poverty puzzle." Economic History Review 53(3): 517-543. yes A1c B1 C1a

In his third social survey of York carried our in 1950, Seebohm Rowntree reported a steep decline since 1936 of the percentage of households in poverty. He attributed the bulk of this decline to government welfare reforms enacted during and after the war. This article re-examines the surviving records from the 1950 survey, using a revised poverty line and looking more closely at the measurement of income. It also re-assesses the impact of welfare reforms on working-class poverty, and finds that poverty in York was significantly higher, and the contribution of welfare reform substantially less, than was originally reported.


Hooper, C. A. and et al. (2007). "Poverty and 'place': does locality make a difference?" Poverty

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