16. To what extent did the independence movements in Latin America draw inspiration from, and ultimately come to resemble, the American and French Revolutions? What, on the other hand, were the factors that were unique to these colonies and that ensured that their revolutions followed their own distinct trajectories?
Ans: The revolutions in Latin America took to heart much of the Enlightenment literature, as well as the positive examples of the United States and France in overthrowing absolutist monarchies. Subsequently the perceived abuses by Napoleon's empire building and the placement of his family on thrones in Spain and elsewhere in Europe caused uprisings by Spanish and Portuguese colonies in Latin America. These colonies had already been chaffing under the viceroy system and the lack of social mobility of the encomienda system; the favoritism for European-born elites over western born or indigenous populations; and the economic monopoly of Spain and Portugal on products from the “colonies.” With the removal of the so-called legitimate monarch during the European wars, a number of areas took advantage of the opportunity to claim a junta in Spanish territories, reportedly to hold the throne in lieu of a monarch until the overthrow of the usurper (Bonaparte's brother). This in turn led to revolutions in Venezuela, Mexico, and Bolivia to overthrow Spanish rule; while these initial revolts failed and Spanish authorities repressed them, other revolutions soon followed, particularly those led by Simon Bolívar and the revolution of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata. While local versus traditional political traditions argued over the legitimacy of these territories, regional rivalries made it impossible to form a unified revolutionary opposition, and so the revolutions seen in Latin America were piecemeal and individual, relying on heroic figures and local radicals, often martyred, to push the independence movements forward.
17. Compare and contrast the revolutionary movements in Venezuela, Mexico, and Brazil.
Ans: Venezuelan independence was initiated by creoles (colonial-born whites), who were large landowners seeking to hold on to their power and wealth. They wanted to retain slavery and keep power from the black and mixed-race populace. Their narrow aims angered most Venezuelans, who broadened the movement, unifying behind Simón Bolívar. Although defeated on many occasions, Bolívar successfully adapted his objectives and policies to attract new allies and build coalitions. Although initially opposed to the abolition of slavery, he agreed to support emancipation in order to draw slaves and freemen to his cause and to gain supplies from Haiti. Bolívar made astute adjustments in his political and military goals and won independence. Mexico was much more conservative and wealthy than other Spanish colonies and also had a higher percentage of Spanish-born settlers. On hearing of Napoleon's invasion of Spain, the wealthiest Spaniards in Mexico feared that the local viceroy would be too sympathetic to the creoles, and so they overthrew him. Establishing a precedent of undermining the colonial government, the revolution spread to the rural and urban poor. It was the news of a military revolt in Spain in 1820 that shattered the conservative coalition. In 1821, Colonel Agustin de Iturbide and other loyalist commanders forged an alliance and declared Mexico's independence. However, this transition to independence was conservative and highlighted by the decision to create a monarchial form of government and crown Iturbide emperor. In 1823, Mexico became a republic. The situation in Brazil was different mainly because of its Portuguese affiliation. When Napoleon invaded Portugal, the Portuguese royal family fled into exile in Brazil. Even after the French in Portugal were defeated, the royal family remained in America. The king returned to Portugal only when a liberal revolt threatened the Iberian government. His son Pedro declared Brazilian independence in 1822 and established a constitutional monarchy with himself as its head.
18. Problems associated with regionalism were important in shaping Latin American nations as well as the United States. Compare and contrast the significance of regionalism throughout the Americas.
Ans: Regionalism in Latin America was very divisive, often splitting nations into competing factions. On a larger scale, it ensured the failure of all attempts at creating federations of states. Students should identify Bolívar's failed attempt at creating Gran Colombia as one example. Within nations, the wealthy jealously guarded their positions and often instigated civil wars or secession movements to safeguard them. This caused more localized divisions, which threatened to split countries apart. Dictators often arose in attempts to unify regions under stronger centralized control. By 1900, every Latin American country had undergone at least one dictatorship. On the other hand, the United States, with a longer British and colonial history of constitutional and representative government, never experienced a violent usurpation of power or rejection of an election. Still, the United States Constitution did specifically try to address regional problems and concerns, which included sanctioning slavery. The problems of regionalism and internal differences were significant enough that they led to the Civil War in 1861.
19. What was the effect of independence and the end of colonialism on Amerindians? Consider former British, Spanish, and Portuguese colonies.
Ans: Toward the end of the colonial era, European nations strove to control the expansion of their peoples in an effort to end the perpetual fighting with Amerindians. Independence removed that check on expansion, but at the same time the revolutionary struggles for freedom weakened newly independent peoples. Amerindians took advantage of that temporary weakness to push back Euro-American advances. Amerindians continued to resist expansion, adapting in unique ways to new technologies and opportunities, such as horses and firearms. Euro-American setbacks were only temporary, however. In places such as the United States, military efforts led by the national government forcibly removed Amerindians to more remote and less viable reservations. In Argentina, powerful Amerindian groups were kept at peace only through an elaborate system of gift giving and prisoner exchanges. Ultimately, however, Amerindians lost their land. Increases in population and new technologies enabled their opponents to overwhelm them. 20. Discuss the significance of railroads in transforming the Western Hemisphere. How did railroads affect Latin America, the United States, and Canada?
Ans: By improving transportation, railroads increased trade and connected the center and peripheral regions of each territory. Initially governments financed railroads, thus demonstrating how new economic planning could transform the countryside and, as the text notes, “affect national histories.” Centralized, urbanized areas were connected to more rural, isolated, and indigenous regions that could not be exploited as extensively before. As a result, wealthier classes made large profits and seized the lands of Amerindians and Native Americans, who were displaced in favor of commercial development. The subsequent financing of railroads by foreign investments led to the further exploitation and development of “Third World” economic territories as “First World” nations were able to exploit resources using technology improvements and industrial growth. In the end railroads helped develop a global market economy.
21. Discuss the process of abolishing slavery in the Americas. Did the movement for abolition of slavery differ in the United States, Latin America, and the Caribbean?
Ans: Students should recognize that during the movements for independence in all three places there were strong antislavery sentiments. The ideas of the Enlightenment, which provided an ideological foundation for independence, also addressed the evils of slavery. In regions where plantation economies were most prevalent, abolition met with the most resistance; however, slave revolts and resistance persisted in all of these areas. Both women and African Americans were active in the abolitionist movement in the United States. As the debate over slavery in the new territories boiled over, the Confederacy seceded from the Union. In 1863, President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which ended slavery in the Union states, and the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution ended it for good in 1865. Slavery persisted for twenty more years in Brazil, where it was finally abolished in 1888. In the Caribbean, slave revolts and resistance weakened European imperial commitment to slavery, and the decreased profitability of sugar plantations convinced the British to push for the abolition of slavery there as well. The remaining Spanish colonies, Puerto Rico and Cuba, were the last to free the slaves.
22. Define and discuss the patterns of economic development and underdevelopment in the Americas. What regions enjoyed economic development during the nineteenth century, and what were the major components of that development? What regions remained underdeveloped, and why?
Ans: Students should recognize that all Western Hemisphere economies grew between 1800 and 1900. The growth of markets, technology, and population caused increases in wealth; however, growing economic interdependence and increased competition also caused structural problems. Two distinct tracks of development evolved: development and underdevelopment. Development included industrial development and prosperity, and underdevelopment included continued colonial dependence on exports of raw materials and low-wage industries. Students should be aware of the effects of world markets on these economies and know which economies were in North America and which were in South America.
23. What was the nature of immigration to the Americas in the nineteenth century? What were some of the problems and contributions of immigration?
Ans: As the African slave trade came to an end, the nature, sources, and numbers of immigrants to the Americas changed dramatically. For instance, hundreds of thousands of Indian and Chinese immigrants came to North and South America. Still, discrimination against Asian immigrants meant that most free immigrants came from Europe, particularly those immigrating to the United States, Canada, Argentina, and other nations of southern South America. Students should identify the various countries from which Europeans came, as well as their numbers. While this influx of people contributed to the Industrial Revolution in the Americas by supplying the labor for new factories and agriculture, workers in the Americas viewed immigrants as a threat—pawns used by capitalists to lower wages and degrade working conditions. Native-born Americans blamed the immigrants' cultures for these immigration-related problems. However, aside from the previously mentioned economic benefits, immigrants made many significant contributions in food, music, literature, and folklore to their new countries. Schools attempted to assimilate immigrants through acculturation, using patriotic songs, symbols, and history lessons to this end. 24. What factors led to the alteration of the American environment? How was the environment altered?
Ans: Population growth, economic expansion, new technologies, and the introduction of plants and animals to new regions dramatically altered the American environment. Many of Cuba's forests were cut to expand sugar production. The expansion of livestock raising put a heavy burden on fragile environments in Argentina, Uruguay, southern Brazil, and the southwestern United States. Commercial agriculture, such as intensive cotton production, led to soil exhaustion and erosion. The use of plows on the North American prairies and the Argentine pampa eliminated many native grasses and increased the threat of soil erosion. Coffee planters in Brazil exhausted soil fertility with a destructive cycle of overplanting. In addition, rapid urbanization put heavy pressure on the environment. New York, Chicago, Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires, and Mexico City were among the fastest-growing cities. Governments strained to keep up with the need for sewers, clean water, and garbage disposal. The rising demand for building materials led to the spread of the timber industry. Mining also advanced into Nevada, Montana, and California after 1860, resulting in erosion and pollution. Efforts to meet the increasing domestic demand for food and housing and to satisfy foreign demands for exports led to environmental degradation but also contributed to the world economy and regional prosperity. By the end of the nineteenth century, small-scale conservation efforts were under way in many nations.
25. The military campaigns of what European leader pushed the colonies of South America toward independence?
26. The Junta Central was a political body established
A) to organize the overthrow of colonial powers.
B) in Mexico to maintain European domination.
C) to coordinate many diverse revolutionary groups.
D) to rule during the French occupation of Spain.
E) to organize armed revolution in the United States.
Ans: D Page: 647
27. The overthrow of the Venezuelan, Mexican, and Bolivian colonial governments was initially led by
A) the uneducated peasantry.
B) landowning creoles.
C) local church leaders.
E) the merchant class.
Ans: B Page: 648
28. Who objected to the Junta Central in Spanish America?
A) Loyalists to the king
B) Loyalists to the nation of Spain
C) Poor farmers
D) Officials in the Catholic Church
E) Indigenous workers
Ans: A Page: 647-648
29. Simón Bolívar created Gran Colombia, which unified
A) the peoples of all Spanish-speaking America.
B) the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking territories.
C) Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador into one nation.
D) Central and South America into one coalition.
E) Haiti, Antigua, and Brazil into one nation.
Ans: C Page: 648
30. After awaiting the return of the Spanish king, Ferdinand IV, to the throne, loyalists were disappointed when he
A) condemned the revolts in the colonies and reinstated the viceroy system.
B) rewarded nobility from Spain with more land grants in Latin America.
C) agreed to accept a constitution that was seen as “too liberal.”
D) agreed to stop supporting Catholic missions in Latin America.
E) enforced lapsed taxes against the colonists.
Ans: C Page: 648
31. Jose de San Martin's most effective troops were
A) Spanish ex-patriots.
B) former American convicts.
C) former American cowboys.
D) former Portuguese soldiers.
E) former slaves.
Ans: E Page: 650
32. In 1810, Spain's richest and most populous American colony was
A) cheaper to turn African-Americans into dependent sharecroppers.
B) immoral and violated universal human rights.
C) leading to the overpopulation of African Americans.
D) slowing down technological development.
E) all of these.
Ans: B Page: 663
56. Despite emancipation of slaves in the United States, African Americans lived under harsh conditions, including
A) a mandatory seven-day workweek.
B) deportation to Liberia.
C) laws that prohibited African Americans from practicing Christianity.
D) “Jim Crow” laws that segregated public transportation, jobs, and schools.
E) all of these.
Ans: D Page: 664
57. The Paraguayan War helped to end slavery in Brazil because large numbers of slaves
A) joined the Brazilian army in exchange for freedom.
B) were liberated by foreign armies.
C) temporarily controlled the Brazilian government.
D) petitioned the pope to mediate for them.
E) fled the country.
Ans: A Page: 663
58. Caribbean settlers were not enthusiastic about independence from European imperial governments because they
A) worried that disaster relief would not be provided.
B) feared slave revolts.
C) feared that trade would diminish.
D) felt vulnerable to economic takeover by the United States.
E) feared the rise of Caribbean tourism.
Ans: B Page: 664
59. After the profitability of sugar plantations declined, the British
A) focused on rum production.
B) burned their crops to create an artificial shortage.
C) planted opium instead.
D) pushed for the end of slavery.
E) None of these
Ans: D Page: 665
60. Slavery lasted longest on the Caribbean islands of
A) St. Lucia and Martinique.
B) Haiti and Dominica.
C) St. Barts and St. Croix.
D) Turks and Caicos.
E) Cuba and Puerto Rico.
Ans: E Page: 665
61. France's support for slavery decreased after
A) the Haitian Revolution.
B) the writing of the Declaration of the Rights of Man.
C) Napoleon conscripted slaves to fight his wars against Britain, promising freedom in exchange for military service.
D) sale of the Louisiana Territory reduced its need for plantation labor.
E) the French economy focused more on wine production and handicrafts than industrialized manufacture.
Ans: A Page: 664
62. Most of the immigrants from Asia after 1850 went to
D) the United States.
Ans: D Page: 665
63. Canada decided to reduce Asian immigration in the 1880s by
A) signing the Chinese Exclusion Act.
B) enacting literacy and citizenship tests.
C) using a quota system.
D) imposing a head tax on Chinese immigrants.
E) None of these
Ans: D Page: 666
64. U.S. efforts to assimilate immigrants included
A) complete relaxation of immigration laws.
B) the discovery of penicillin to cure immigrant diseases.
C) teaching patriotism and English in school.
D) the adoption of all Romance languages as the official language.
E) forcing immigrants to wear badges of ethnicity.
Ans: C Page: 666-667
65. The modification of the language, customs, values, and behaviors of a group as a result of contact with people from another culture is called
Ans: A Page: 667
66. The Women's Rights Convention was held in
A) Paterson, New Jersey.
B) Seneca Falls, New York.
C) Toronto, Canada.
D) Washington, D.C.
E) Boston, Massachusetts.
Ans: B Page: 668
67. Working-class women transformed gender relations by
A) becoming directly involved in reform movements.
B) working outside the home.
C) armed revolution.
D) copying the tactics of the Jacobins in the French Revolution.
E) going on strike in the home.
Ans: B Page: 668
68. Because Canada did not allow women to enter medical school before 1895, that country’s first women doctors received their degrees in
D) the United States.
Ans: D Page: 668
69. The Industrial Revolution created new demand for metals such as copper, zinc, and tin. This led to
A) the production of the supermetal titanium.
B) a mining boom in the United States, Chile, and Mexico.
C) a depression of the precious metals market.
D) widespread heavy metal poisoning.
E) a metal shortage.
Ans: B Page: 669
70. Which of the following technological improvements did not change the Argentine cattle industry at the end of the nineteenth century?
C) The invention of barbed wire
D) Lowered freight costs
E) The steamship
Ans: B Page: 671
71. The economic success of the United States in the nineteenth century was exemplified by the
A) telephone network.
B) rise of state and municipal governments.
C) increase in manpower of the United States army.
D) United States's railroad network.
E) All of these
Ans: D Page: 671
72. Much of Cuba's dense forest was cut for
A) merchant and naval shipbuilding.
B) cattle-grazing land.
C) expanding sugar production.
D) charcoal for new industries.
E) prevention of malaria.
Ans: C Page: 672
73. A naturalist who worked for environmental preservation was
A) Jane Goodall.
B) John de Bois.
C) John Adams.
D) John Locke.
E) John Muir.
Ans: E Page: 673
74. When confronted with the choice of economic growth or environmental protection,
A) Western Hemisphere nations tried to adopt a balanced policy.
B) some nations chose growth over protection.
C) all nations chose environmental protection.
D) all nations chose economic growth.
E) nations did not make a conscious choice between the two.
Ans: D Page: 673
Use the following to answer questions 75-82:
75. Using Map 23.1, identify the new countries that emerged by 1840. In addition, locate the territories still under the control of colonial powers in 1840.
76. Using Map 23.1, locate the areas of the United States that belonged to Mexico, and explain how this situation changed after 1848. Compare with Map 24.3 and discuss how this change fueled the U.S. motivation for westward expansion..
77. Using Map 23.2, discuss the Confederation of 1867 and how the borders of Canada were changed as a result.
78. Refer to Map 23.3 and identify the largest territorial expansions during the period from 1800 to 1850. What made this expansion possible?
79. Refer to Maps 23.2 and 23.3 and discuss the effects of railroad building in North America. How did this promote expansion?
Page: 655, 658
80. Refer to Map 23.3 and show the European and American nations that were expelled from North America by the United States. How was this expulsion accomplished?
81. Refer to Map 23.3 and list the issues that arose as a result of territorial expansion.
82. Refer to Map 23.4 and explain why railroad growth increased so much at the end of the nineteenth century and the start of the twentieth century. Why does it seem so concentrated in the middle of the country?