Nash, Study Guide 13 The Union Severed

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Nash, Study Guide 13

The Union Severed

  1. Ft. Sumter and the sectional responses: In response to Fort Sumter both North and South witnessed a tremendous outpouring of support.

  1. Southern strengths: Skilled military leadership, effective fighting forces, and defensive positions and tactics.

  1. Southern expectations for foreign aid: “Cotton diplomacy” – Southerners thought that European nations would recognize and support the Confederacy because of the Europeans' dependence upon southern cotton. The British did not come to the aid of the South.

  1. Southern constitution and Jefferson Davis

  1. Material assets of the North: The material assets of the North during the Civil War became effective only in the long run.

  1. conscription

  1. Lincoln as war president --- army generals, habeas corpus and the press

  1. copperheads

  1. The border states: Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland – Delaware (sides with Union camp)

  1. Tactics and weapons: The use of the new, longer-range rifles during the Civil War produced horrible carnage.

  1. Anaconda plan: During the early years of the Civil War, the northern navy concentrated on gaining footholds along the southern coast for a blockade.

  1. Stalemate: Whereas the Union had to win a war of conquest and occupation, the South merely had to survive until its enemy tired and gave up.

  1. Battle of Shiloh Church, 1862: The casualties for the battle at Shiloh Church were enormous because of the insufficient care of wounds on the battlefield. More men fell in the Battle of Shiloh Church than in the American Revolution, the War of 1812, and the Mexican War combined.

    • "Shiloh, A Requiem" by Herman Melville

      SKIMMING lightly, wheeling still,

      The swallows fly low
      Over the fields in clouded days,
      The forest-field of Shiloh--
      Over the field where April rain
      Solaced the parched one stretched in pain
      Through the pause of night
      That followed the Sunday fight
      Around the church of Shiloh--
      The church so lone, the log-built one,
      That echoed to many a parting groan
      And natural prayer
      Of dying foemen mingled there--
      Foemen at morn, but friends at eve--
      Fame or country least their care:
      (What like a bullet can undeceive!)
      But now they lie low,
      While over them the swallows skim,
      And all is hushed at Shiloh.

  1. George McClellan: Waging a defensive war in the early years, this general felt that a successful southern offensive would bring diplomatic recognition and might even force the North to sue for peace.

  1. Ulysses Grant & grim annihilation

  1. Conscription of slave labor

  1. Slave agency and union camps

  1. Contraband

  1. Slave action and radical agitation

  1. Increasing costs and commitment

  1. “A first rate, second rate man” ---- Wendell Phillips

  1. The Battle of Antietam (or Sharpsburg) on September 17, 1862: A Union victory, this battle presented President Lincoln with the opportunity to issue a preliminary emancipation proclamation.

  1. Emancipation Proclamation, January 1863: The Emancipation Proclamation was issued by Abraham Lincoln diplomatic concern of favorable foreign impressions of the North, implicit appeal to slaves to subvert the southern war effort, and the need to prepare northern whites for the eventuality of emancipation. The Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves in unconquered parts of the Confederacy. Lincoln was forced to walk a thin line between racist conservatives and radical abolitionists. The Emancipation Proclamation, defended by Lincoln as "an act of justice, warranted by the Constitution upon military necessity," helped prepare northerners for the eventuality of emancipation. Although it did not technically free any slaves at the time, it gave the war a moral purpose and laid to rest any possibility of foreign support for the Confederacy. It encouraged slaves to flee the South, subverting the southern war effort.

  1. New York city Draft Riots, 1863: The largest civil disturbance of the nineteenth century occurred in New York City in early July 1863, as the NYC Draft Riots. The New York City draft riots exposed the racial and class antagonisms of northern society.

  1. Transformation of war aims

  1. Foreign sensibilities (especially England)

  1. Decline of white yeomanry

  1. Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight

  1. “Voting with your feet”

  1. Election of 1864: In the election of 1864, Democratic candidate George McClellan proclaimed the war a failure and demanded an armistice with the South.

  1. Republican agenda

  1. Two visions: one victor

  1. Wartime Reconstruction

  1. Port Royal experiment

  1. Northern evangelicals and carpetbaggers

  1. Former slaves and land: labor theory of value

  1. Ring-shout dance

  1. Davis Bend

  1. General Sherman

  1. Field Order # 15

  1. Tunis Campbell

  1. Lincoln’s Reconstruction --- “With malice toward none, with charity for all... let us finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds”

  1. 10% Plan

  1. Lincoln’s Vice President

  1. Reconstruction

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