Napoleon’s Greatest Gamble: The Invasion of Russia (1812) Campaigns of the Napoleonic Wars vol. I



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11. Combat (Detail)

11.1 Each combat occurs as a consequence of an undisrupted stack [Rule 10.1] carrying out an order [Rule 10.2] to attack an enemy stack on an immediately adjacent hex. [Exception: If the defending stack comprises solely cavalry and the attackers have none, the defenders may withdraw [Rule 11.11] prior to combat taking place. The attacking stack then has to option to advance into the newly vacated hex.]


11.2 The combat sequence is detailed in the rest of this Section. Note that:

  • all modifiers to the attack and defence values are cumulative. The order in which they take effect follows the order of the Rules

  • serving as a “supporting stack” to either an attacker or defender [Rules 10.3, 10.5, 11.5 and 11.7] counts as having “taken part in combat”, for the purposes of Rules 11.3, 11.5, 11.6 and 11.7.]

  • the aggregate Combat Factors [CFs] of the units within an attacking or defending stack, and the aggregate number of combat units in a supporting stack are halved if any unit(s) within the stack “force marched” during the Strategic Movement phase or has already taken part in combat during “this” Turn, (or quartered if both these circumstances apply or if the stack has already taken part in combat twice or more during “this” Turn).

11.3 The aggregate CFs [Rule 3.3] of the units in the attacking stack are increased by two (2) if there are two (2) different combat unit types in the stack; or, by four (4) if there are three (3) different combat unit types in the stack to give the attack value.


This value may be halved/quartered per Rule 11.2, bullet 3.
11.4 The attack value is reduced by three (-3) if the attack involves crossing a river (whether or not bridged); by two (-2) if attacking without artillery into a hex containing a fortified city or if attacking into forest, marsh or rough ground; and/or by one (-1) if attacking with artillery into a hex containing a fortified city, to give the modified attack value.
Play note: the attack value is halved/quartered per Rule 11.2 bullet 3 after any adjustment for “combined arms” but before any reductions for terrain effects per Rule 11.4.
11.5 The modified attack value is augmented by

- the CR, limited to the number of combat units present, of any Commander accompanying the attacking stack (the highest CR only if there is more than one (1) Commander)

- the number* of undisrupted combat units in each friendly “supporting stack” called upon to participate in the combat [Rule 10.3]

- plus one (+1) if the supporting stack is accompanied by a Commander(s)

- the score of 1xd6 to give the final attack value [FAV].  
* This value may be halved/quartered per Rule 11.2, bullet 3. Also, if attacking across a river (whether or not bridged) the supporting stack suffers a negative modifier of minus two (-2); if into a fortified city without artillery or into forest, marsh or rough ground, of minus one (-1).
Play note: modifiers are cumulative even when this produces a negative result.
11.6 The aggregate CFs [Rule 3.3] of the units in the defending stack are increased by two (2) if there are two (2) different undisrupted combat unit types in the stack; or, by four (4) if there are three (3) different undisrupted combat unit types in the stack to give the defence value.
This value may be halved/quartered per Rule 11.2, bullet 3.
11.7 The defence value is augmented by
- the CR, limited to the number of undisrupted combat units, of any Commander present (the highest only if there is more than one (1) Commander);

- the number** of undisrupted combat units in each friendly “supporting stack” called upon to participate in the combat [Rule 10.5]

- plus one (+1) if the supporting stack is accompanied by a Commander(s)

- the score of 1xd6 to give the final defence value [FDV].


** This value may be halved/quartered per Rule 11.2, bullet 3.
11.8 The side with the highest final value wins the combat.
11.9 If the scores are tied, both stacks remain on the hex that they occupied prior to combat taking place. One (1) unit in the attacking stack receives a hit (owner’s choice) [Rule 11.17].
11.10 If the defenders are victorious, the attacking stack remains on the hex that it occupied prior to combat taking place. The defending stack has the option of remaining on the hex upon which the combat occurred or withdrawing [Rule 11.11].
11.11 To withdraw, the defending units (including any Commander(s)) remain stacked together and retreat from the hex which they occupied prior to the combat taking place onto an immediately adjacent hex. A withdrawal may not be made
- across an unbridged river

- onto a hex containing “difficult terrain” [Exception: (Rule 14.6): Russian units (only) may withdraw into forests, marshes and/or rough ground]

- onto a hex containing an enemy unit(s) or a hex immediately adjacent to the stack which initiated the attack

- in violation of the receiving hex's capacity [see Rule 4.1]


See also Rule 11.16 for the consequences of withdrawing.
11.12 If the attacker wins and:


  • has a FAV of three (3) or more than the FDV, the surviving units in the defending stack must withdraw [Rule 11.11], and are eliminated if a withdrawal is not possible. Those combat units in the attacking stack which remain undisrupted, have the option to advance onto the vacated hex. See also Rule 11.13.

  • has a FAV of one or two (1 or 2) more than the FDV, the surviving units in the defending stack have the option to remain on the hex that they occupied prior to combat taking place, or to withdraw [Rule 11.11]. If they withdraw, undisrupted cavalry units (only) in the attacking stack have the option to advance after combat onto the vacated hex.



Play note: only the units in the attacking or defending stacks, not in supporting stacks, may advance or retreat after combat.
Advancing an undisrupted unit(s) after combat is always optional. An unit(s) may advance even if another unit(s) within the attacking stack is disrupted. However, the disrupted unit(s) cannot join the advance, and must remain in situ.
11.13 If all defending units are eliminated [Rule 11.17] any undisrupted unit(s) in the attacking stack (including any Commander(s)) may advance per Rule 11.12 first bullet point irrespective of the difference between the two (2) final values. [Exception: see Rule 14.6].

11.14 The difference between the two (2) final values [Rule 11.8] equates to the number of “hits” which the winning stack inflicts upon the losing stack; although this cannot exceed the total number of undisrupted combat units (including supporting units) on the winning side before combat commenced.

11.15 The number of hits which the losing side inflicts upon the winning side equates to half that difference (remember fractions are rounded down) adjusted by 1xd6.  A roll of one or two (1 or 2) gives an adjustment of minus one (-1), three or four (3 or 4) has no effect, and five or six (5 or 6) gives an adjustment of plus one (+1). The adjusted result cannot be less than zero and cannot exceed the total number of undisrupted combat units (including supporting units) on the losing side before combat commenced.
11.16 If a defending stack exercises an option to withdraw, or is forced to do so, and the attacking stack contains an undisrupted unit(s) of cavalry, and the defending stack has none (0), one (1) disrupted defending unit suffers an additional hit and is eliminated (owner’s choice).
11.17 Hits are allocated to combat units by the owning player immediately that they occur. He/she must allocate at least half of the hits to units in the attacking or defending stack with any remainder being allocated to supporting stacks. An unit which receives a hit becomes disrupted or, if already disrupted (including during the “current” combat), is eliminated. If a stack incurs an odd number of hits (1, 3, 5, etc) the owning player may elect to suffer and allocate one (1) additional hit to a disrupted unit so as to eliminate it.
Play note: an already disrupted unit may be eliminated by a hit, even if the stack contains undisrupted units.
11.18 Although disrupted units take no active part in combat they may suffer the consequences by taking hits or being forced to withdraw. If a hex under attack contains disrupted units only, their FDV equates to the score of 1xd6. This remains the case even if a Commander is present and/or there are friendly units in support.
Play note: by virtue of Rules 11.14 and 11.15 disrupted units can never inflect any hits upon enemy units.
11.19 If all friendly combat units on a hex containing a Commander(s) are eliminated as a consequence of combat, or if an unaccompanied Commander(s) is attacked, the owning player throws 1xd6 (for each Commander). If the score is one (1) the Commander is eliminated. Otherwise the Commander escapes and may be placed by the owning player on any friendly stack no more than three (3) hexes distant, irrespective of whether any intervening hexes are occupied by an enemy unit(s). In the absence of any such stack the Commander is eliminated.
See example Combat (2) at the end of the booklet.




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