Napoleon rose through the army



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Napoleon’s Rise and Fall: 1800 – 1814

    1. Napoleon’s Rise to Power




      1. Napoleon rose through the army


  1. Defended the palace from an attack while the National Convention was meeting.

  2. Appointed commander of a French army against Austria and the Kingdom of Sardinia

  3. Became the most famous general in Europe



      1. Napoleon seizes power in France


  1. Led a coup against the Directory – occupied one chamber of the legislature

  2. Second chamber gave power to three consuls – Napoleon was one of them



      1. Napoleon expands his power through the use of plebiscites


  1. Definition: an election in which all citizens vote “yes” or “no” on an issue.

  2. Use them to become emperor
  1. Napoleon restores order in France

  1. Economic order


  1. Balanced the government’s budget

  2. Created a national bank
  1. Social order


  1. Welcomed back noble emigrés as long as they behaved politically

  2. Promoted people according to merit not by noble family
  1. Religious order


  1. Everyone was free to worship as he or she wished
  1. Legal order


  1. Napoleonic Code

  • Abolished the three estates and granted equal rights before the law to all classes

  • Censored newspapers, women could not hold property, restored slavery to colonies

  1. Napoleon “stood above the law”.




  1. Napoleon Dominates Europe (1800-1812)



  1. The Empire of Napoleon


  1. Only major European countries outside Napoleon’s power were Britain, the Ottoman Empire, Russia, and Sweden.



  1. Napoleon’s Empire Begins to Collapse




  1. Napoleon wanted to defeat Britain





  1. Three misjudgments made by Napoleon.

  1. Blockade

  • European ports were closed to British shipping

  • Napoleon’s Continental System was supposed to make Europe more self-sufficient and destroy the British economy.

  • Actually hurt France more than Britain

  1. Napoleon planned to make his brother king of Spain

  • Spanish guerillas began to attack French armies in Spain (Peninsula War)

  • Peninsula War wasted French money and men.

  1. Invasion of Russia

  1. Scorched-earth policy – burned grain fields and slaughter livestock.

  2. Russia attacks the starving French army as they retreat back to France.



  1. Napoleon is defeated by the Grand Alliance


  1. Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria and Sweden join together and defeat Napoleon in 1814

  2. Napoleon is exiled (banished) to the Elba off the coast of Italy.




  1. Napoleon Returns Again – Very Brief

  1. Returned to France in 1815 and regained control

  2. Battle of Waterloo – Belgium – Defeated by Grand Alliance again

  3. Exiled to St. Helena (Atlantic Ocean)




  1. Congress of Vienna Meets – Europe Post Napoleon – Now What?



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