Name Pr. Ch. 3 Study Guide Section 1

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Ch. 3 Study Guide

Section 1

1. Why did two-thirds of Jamestown’s colonists die by the time the first winter arrived?

2. Who took control of Jamestown in 1608? How did he change conditions there?
3. Who was Pocahontas and why was her marriage to John Rolfe significant?
4. What events led to a conflict between the Jamestown settlers and the Powhatan Confederacy?
5. What was the headright system? What was its significance?
6. Why were indentured servants necessary in Virginia?
7. Why did Nathaniel Bacon and a group of former indentured servants attack and burn Jamestown?
8. Why was the Toleration Act of 1649 passed? Was it successful? What did it accomplish?
9. What was James Oglethrope’s plan for Georgia?
10. Who was Olaudah Equiano?
11. South Carolina’s slave codes prohibited slaves from holding meetings or owning weapons. Why?
Section 2

12. What made the Pilgrims decide to immigrate to America?

13. How did Squanto aid the Pilgrims in Plymouth colony?
14. What factors helped the Puritans succeed in establishing the Massachusetts Bay Colony?
15. What role did the church play in the Massachusetts government?
16. Which of Anne Hutchinson’s beliefs angered Puritan church leaders? Why?
17. New England had plenty of forests. How do you connect this fact to the economic importance of certain industries in the region?
Section 3

18. Who are the Quakers?

19. How did William Penn attempt to create a colonial government that would be fair to all?
20. What agricultural advantage did the middle colonies have over both northern and southern colonies?
21. What different types of jobs did slaves in the middle colonies hold?
22. In what ways were women essential to the middle colonies?
Section 4

23. What was the significance of Virginia’s assembly, founded in 1619?

24. What did the English Bill of Rights do in terms of a shifting of power?
25. What was the purpose of the Navigation Acts? From the late 1600s to the early 1700s some colonists attempted to get around these restrictions. How did they attempt to do so?
26. Describe what is meant by the term “triangular trade.”
27. What was the Middle Passage? How was it affected by the interests of slave traders?
28. What was the Great Awakening?
29. Which Enlightenment ideas influenced the thinking of political leaders in the colonies?
30. How did the map of North America change as a result of the French and Indian War?
31. Chief Pontiac led Native American resistance in opposition to what?
32. What was the Proclamation of 1763?

Section 5

33. In 1764, Parliament passed the Sugar Act in response to Prime Minister George Grenville’s request to tax the colonists. Why did the British prime minister make that request?

34. Why might a colonist have felt that the British vice-admiralty courts were unjust?
35. Describe how the “No Taxation Without Representation” slogan came about.
36. Why is a boycott an effective way to protest?
37. What was the Stamp Act? What was the reaction to it from the colonists? What did Parliament finally do?
38. What were the Townshend Acts? What was the reaction to it from the colonists? What did the governor finally do?
39. What event caused tension between British soldiers and Bostonians to explode on March 5, 1770, directly sparking the Boston Massacre?
40. What was the purpose of the Tea Act? How did the colonists react?
41. What message did the Boston Tea Party send to the British government?
42. What happened to Massachusetts in the aftermath of the Boston Tea Party?
43. What one word do you think best describes the response of Britain’s Lord North to news of the Boston Tea Party?

Ch. 3 Study Guide

Answer Section
1. ANS:

Answers may vary. The colonists were not prepared for life in Jamestown. Many were adventurers who lacked useful experience and skills such as farming and carpentry. For this reason, they did not have enough food or decent housing. They also got sick from disease-carrying mosquitoes that filled the marshes surrounding the settlement.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.1.1 NAT: 3.1.1
2. ANS:

John Smith took over and improved conditions in Jamestown by creating rules that rewarded workers with food. These rules forced people to work harder and build better housing. He also made an agreement with the Powhatan Confederacy. They brought food to the colonists and taught them to grow corn.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.1.1 NAT: 3.1.1
3. ANS:

Daughter of the Powhatan leader. Their marriage kept peace between the colonists and the Powhatan.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.1.1 NAT: 3.1.1
4. ANS:

Some colonists killed a Powhatan leader, and in response the Powhatan attacked the settlers.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.1.1 NAT: 3.1.1
5. ANS:

Answers may vary in detail. The headright system gave 50 acres of land to English colonists who paid their own way to Virginia. It also gave an extra 50 acres of land for each person they brought with them. The London Company started the headright system to give wealthy people an incentive to travel to the new colony and start a new life. The best answers will add that the headright system was partly responsible for the development of large plantations in the southern colonies.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.1.2 NAT: 3.1.2
6. ANS:

High death rates led to labor shortages.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.1.1 NAT: 3.1.1
7. ANS:

The group was against the governor’s policies toward American Indians. They did not like the fact that the governor promoted trade with American Indians. The group also thought settlers should be able to take American Indian land. Answers may add that Bacon and his followers only attacked and burned Jamestown after the governor tried to stop them from attacking American Indians.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.1.2 NAT: 3.1.2

8. ANS:

The Toleration Act was passed because conflicts existed between Catholics and Protestants in Maryland. To end the conflict, the Act made it illegal to restrict the rights of Christians in the colony. It was not totally successful because it did not stop all religious conflict. But it showed that the government wanted to protect the rights and religious freedom of minority groups.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.1.3 NAT: 3.1.3
9. ANS:

Georgia would be a place where debtors, who had been jailed in England, could start fresh. He wanted small farms and no plantations.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.1.3 NAT: 3.1.3
10. ANS:

Degree of detail can vary, but answers should include the main points. Olaudah Equiano was born in Africa and brought to America on a slave ship. After he survived the Middle Passage, he was sold into slavery. Under one of his owners, he was trained as a sailor, and eventually made enough money to buy his freedom. He devoted the rest of his life to ending slavery. One way he did that was by recording his experiences as a slave in the southern colonies.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.1.4 NAT: 3.1.4
11. ANS:

Colonists were afraid that slaves would revolt. These codes made it difficult for slaves to plan and execute an uprising.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.1.4 NAT: 3.1.4
12. ANS:

Answers may vary, but should mention some of the following points. Religious tension in England remained high after the Protestant Reformation. Tension arose between Pilgrims and the Church of England because Pilgrims thought bishops and priests had too much power over church members. Pilgrims were Separatists, people who wanted to separate from the Anglican Church. Anglican leaders punished Separatists. To escape punishment, Pilgrims immigrated to the Netherlands. When they began to fear that their children were losing their connection to the Dutch culture and language, they got a charter from England to start a colony in America.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.3.1 NAT: 3.2.1
13. ANS:

Squanto taught the Pilgrims how to fertilize the soil with fish remains. Squanto also helped the Prilgrims establish relations with the Wampanoag Indians. Both of these things led to the improvement of conditions in Plymouth colony.

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: 3.2.1 NAT: 3.2.1
14. ANS:

The best answers will name at least three of the following factors: Puritans arrived well prepared to start their colony, having brought tools and livestock. The climate around Boston was healthful so few Puritans died from illness. The local Native Americans offered little resistance to the Puritans. The Massachusetts Bay Colony also benefited from trade with the Plymouth Colony.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.3.1 NAT: 3.2.1
15. ANS:

Religion was closely tied to government, ministers had a great deal of power, and only male church members could vote.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.3.1 NAT: 3.2.1
16. ANS:

Anne Hutchinson believed that people could have relationships with God without the help of ministers. This belief posed a threat to the authority of the Church in the community. If people didn’t need ministers, they didn’t need the Church.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.3.3 NAT: 3.2.2
17. ANS:

Answers will vary in detail. Most importantly, the shipbuilding industry benefited economically from the huge supply of wood provided by the region’s forests. They used it to build different types of ships and boats in order to meet the demands of various traders. The ships they built helped the fishing industry as well as merchants who used the ships for trading purposes. Shipbuilding also attracted skilled craftspeople to the region.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.3.3 NAT: 3.2.3
18. ANS:

A religious group known as the Society of Friends, which supported religious tolerance, nonviolence,a nd equality of men and women.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.2.4 NAT: 3.2.4
19. ANS:

He limited his own power, established an elected assembly that reflected the citizens’ will, and provided religious freedom to all Christians.

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: 3.3.2 NAT: 3.3.2
20. ANS:

The climate and rich soil allowed for the farming of large amounts of staple crops, such as wheat, oats, and barley.

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: 3.3.3 NAT: 3.3.3
21. ANS:

skilled laboreres, farm laboreres, and on board ships and in the shipbuilding industry

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: 3.3.3 NAT: 3.3.3
22. ANS:

They ran farms and businesses, practiced medicine, earned money for their families by selling goods.

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: 3.3.3 NAT: 3.3.3
23. ANS:

It was the first colonial legislature in North America.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.4.1 NAT: 3.4.1

24. ANS:

Gave Parliament more power, and limited the powers of the English Monarch.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.4.1 NAT: 3.4.1

25. ANS:

British trade restrictions, limiting colonial trade with countries other than England. Some colonists smuggled goods, meaning they traded them illegally. More detailed answers will add that they often smuggled sugar, molasses, and rum into the colonies from non-English islands in the Caribbean.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.4.3 NAT: 3.4.2
26. ANS:

The term “triangular trade” describes the indirect trading system in which goods and slaves were traded among the Americas, Britain, and Africa. Trade between Britain, Africa, and the Americas took a triangular shape. Different goods were transported on the routes of the triangles and traded at ports for local goods.

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: 3.4.2 NAT: 3.4.2
27. ANS:

Answers may vary in detail. The Middle Passage was the voyage millions of Africans were forced to endure on their journey across the Atlantic Ocean, from Africa to North America. The journey lasted up to three months. It was extremely uncomfortable because slave traders packed as many Africans as possible into a space that was not even three feet high. The conditions caused many Africans to die of disease. But traders wanted to make money. The more Africans they shipped, the more money they made. Slaves became even more valuable when farmers started using fewer indentured servants.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.4.2 NAT: 3.4.2
28. ANS:

Answers may vary. The Great Awakening was a religious movement that spread through the colonies in the 1730s and 1740s. It changed colonial religion and affected social and political life. Meetings between ministers and people of different regions, races, and classes were one of the few exchanges that occurred between colonies. Because of this movement, people who were not used to democratic ideas of equality were introduced to them for the first time.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.4.3 NAT: 3.4.3
29. ANS:

The basic idea of the Enlightenment was that reason and logic could improve society. But Enlightenment thinkers also had ideas about politics and government. They believed in natural rights, such as equality and liberty. These ideas influenced political leaders in the colonies. Answers might also mention the idea that the relationship between government and citizens is based on the idea of a social contract.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.4.3 NAT: 3.4.3

30. ANS:

The Treaty of Paris, which ended the war, changed the way land was divided between nations. Britain’s power grew and France weakened. (The best answers will include some details: Britain was given Canada, and received Florida from Spain. Britain also gained all French lands east of the Mississippi, except for New Orleans and a couple of small islands. Because of a previous treaty with Spain, France’s size on the map had already grown smaller. But the Treaty of Paris made it shrink even more.)

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.4.4 NAT: 3.4.4

31. ANS:

British settlement of the lands west of the Appalachian Mountains, in the backcountry of Virginia and Carolina, and the Ohio River valley.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.4.4 NAT: 3.4.4
32. ANS:

Because of fighting between settlers and Indians, King George III issued this proclamaion banning British settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. Is also ordered settlers to leave the upper Ohio River valley.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.4.4 NAT: 3.4.4
33. ANS:

Answers may vary. Generally, he needed the money to pay the costs of the French and Indian War. Specifically, the British kept a permanent army in North America to protect the colonists from attacks by Native Americans. The taxes were to be used to pay for the army.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.5.1 NAT: 3.5.1
34. ANS:

The British vice-admiralty courts had no juries and the judges treated suspects as guilty until proven innocent. Plus, these courts treated accused colonists differently from citizens accused in British courts, who were innocent until proven guilty.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.5.1 NAT: 3.4.1
35. ANS:

After the Sugar Act, colonists believed Parliament had no right to tax the colonists without popular consent. The colonists had no representation in Parliament.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.5.1 NAT: 3.4.1
36. ANS:

Hurts economy.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.5.1 NAT: 3.4.1
37. ANS:

Tax - official seal had to be purchased when buying paperproducts.

-refused to buy it, Sons of Liberty formed, courts shut down, etc.

-repealed it

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.5.1 NAT: 3.4.1

38. ANS:

-boycott of British good

-tax collectors seized a ship angering colonists

-colonists attacked the house of commons

-troops sent in to restore order

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.5.1 NAT: 3.4.1
39. ANS:

A British soldier hit a colonist during an argument.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.5.3 NAT: 3.5.2
40. ANS:

-to raise money and stop colonial smuggling

-disguised themselves as Indians and snuck onto three ships, dumbing 340 tea chests into the Boston Harbor

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.5.3 NAT: 3.5.3

41. ANS:

-colonists would react to defend their rights

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.5.3 NAT: 3.5.3
42. ANS:

Intolerable Acts - Britain wanted to restore order in the colony. Parliament passed the Coercive Acts, which colonists called the Intolerable Acts, to punish Massachusetts. Answers may add that as a result of the Coercive Acts, Boston Harbor was closed until the ruined tea was paid for. The colony’s charter was canceled and the governor had to approve any meetings of the legislature. Royal officials accused of crimes in the colony were sent home to Britain, where they faced trial by a friendlier judge and jury. And the Crown appointed the colony’s new governor, and a new Quartering Act was implemented

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: 3.5.3 NAT: 3.5.3
43. ANS:

Any word synonymous with furious, mad, angry, or upset.

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: 3.5.4 NAT: 3.5.3

DIF: 1 OBJ: 3.5.4 NAT: 3.5.3

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