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The Columbian Exchange is the widespread exchange of plants, animals, cultures, diseases, and ideas between the Eastern and Western Hemisphere. The Columbian Exchange is significant because so many of the things introduced from one part of the world to another had monumental and lasting effects on the future of the world. The Columbian Exchange also marks a turning point in Native American history.

  1. For each cause below, list a direct effect and an indirect effect.

    1. Europeans inadvertently bring diseases to the New World. Direct - Killed nearly 95% of all Native Americans Indirect - European settlers were able to take Native American lands more easily

B. Europeans bring horses to the New World. Direct - Made conquest of Native Americans easier for Europeans Indirect - Provided Native Americans a more effective way to hunt buffalo

C. Europeans introduce domesticated livestock to the New World. Direct - Animals over grazed and destroyed many crops and ground cover Indirect - Farming became more efficient and dependency on farming increased across America

D. Native Americans introduce Europeans to new crops. Potatoes and Corn – Direct - Helped feed growing population in Europe; became important crops for population growth Indirect - Dependency on potato crop caused famine when they failed, causing may Irish to immigrate

  1. Describe a cultural idea that Europeans brought to the New World. Explain how it was positive and how it was negative. Land Ownership. Positive – Europeans would have more land to settle on and could leave Europe to come to the Americas. Negative – Native Americans had believed in a collective ownership of land; many were forced onto reservations. Native Americans lost much of their land as a result.

  1. Explain why European contact with the New World is described as a "turning point" in Native American history. Almost the entire Native American population was killed by disease brought over from the Old World. They lost much of their land and moved onto reservations.

  1. List some groups of people that benefited from the Columbian Exchange and for each group, describe one way they benefited. Europeans benefitted by gaining land and new crops, settlers benefitted, and monarchs benefitted from profit and land.

  1. List some groups of people that suffered from the Columbian Exchange and for each group, describe one way they suffered. Native Americans lost much of their land and suffered from disease, Africans were brought over to work the land. Forced labor.

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