Why did American officials support the overthrow of Diem’s government?What happens to Diem?
Diem’s policies of relocating peasants and persecuting Buddhists made him unpopular in his own country. JFK realized that the struggle against communism could not be won under Diem’s rule. He is assassinated.
What is the Gulf of Tonkin Incident?Is it true?
Supposedly NV torpedo boats had attacked the US destroyers in the international waters of the Gulf of Tonkin. Attacks did not occur.
What was the result of this?
Congress passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
What is the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution?
Gave the President nearly complete control over what the US did in Vietnam, even without an official declaration of war form Congress.
What were battlefield conditions like for American soldiers?
Difficult. American soldiers discovered that superior firepower had a sharply limited effect on an enemy that used guerrilla tactics and was often assisted by South Vietnamese civilians.
What is guerilla warfare?
Working in small groups to launch sneak attacks and practice sabotage.
How did the use of land mines and fragmentation bombs make the war especially brutal for soldiers and civilians?
Land mines planted in the ground were intended to stop advancing soldiers, but could be set off by the footsteps of anyone, soldier or civilian. The casings of fragmentation bombs flew in all directions after exploding, killing many.
When LBJ became president he ______expanded/escalated_______the war in Vietnam.
What was the Ho Chi Minh Trail?
A supply route from NV passing through Laos and Cambodia, which allowed supplies and troops from the N for the Viet Cong to be moved into SV
The American objective was not to conquer Vietnam but rather to
Force the enemy to stop fighting
Were operations like” Rolling Thunder” and search and destroy mission victories effective? Why/Why not?
No, failed to have any significant effect on the course of war. Nothing seemed to diminish the enemy’s willingness or ability to continued fighting. When the Viet Cong suffered heavy losses, NV sent new troops.
Explain the Tet Offensive.
1968 Viet Cong and North Vietnam surprise attack throughout SV on major cities, towns, American military bases through SV.
Why was the Tet Offensive a turning point in the Vietnam war?
Viet Cong won a psychological victory, even though the Americans won a military victory.
List at least 3 results/effects of the Tet Offensive.
Demonstrated that the Viet Cong could launch a massive attack on targets throughout SV.
How does Nixon expand the war in 1970?Why?What are the effects?
US and SV invades Cambodia to clear out Communist camps b/c they were mounting attacks on SV from Cambodia. Knew it would not win the war, but maybe at the bargaining table. This brought chaos and civil war in Cambodia and more protests at home.
Explain what took place at Kent State and Jackson State.Year? Who? Why?Result?
1970, Student protests against US invasion of Cambodia, Kent-braking widows, burned ROTC bulding. Gov of Ohio calls NG. Protesters are gassed and shot 4 dead.
Explain the 4 agreements of the Paris Peace Accords of 1973.
US would withdraw all forces form SV in 60 days
All POW’s would be released
All parties would end military activities in Laos and Cambodia
17th parallel would divided N and S Vietnam until country could be reunited.
Explain the fall of South Vietnam. Official date of surrender?
After the withdrawal of US forces SV steadily lost ground. By 4/29/75 Communist forces surrounded Saigon and US evacuated Americans and Vietnamese for the city. On 4/30/75 SV surrenders and Vietnam was a single nation under a Communist government.
Did the “Domino Theory” hold true? What countries?
1. How does Nixon try to control inflation and stimulate the nation?
Uses deficit spending.
2. What is deficit spending? Do we use this today?
Spending more money in a year than the government receives in revenue, yes
3. Explain the reasons for the energy problem in 1973. Results/Effects for the US? Sound familiar??
Israel and Arab nations went to war (Egypt/Syria). US backs Israel. Arab members of OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) ban shipping of oil to the US. Oil prices skyrocket along with inflation. Consumers reacted to the higher prices by cutting back on spending. Result in a recession.
4. Define OPEC and what they do.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Group of nations that cooperates to set oil prices and production levels.
5. Explain the first landing on the moon. Year?Who?Ship?Famous quote?
1961,Neil Armstrong/Eagle/Apollo 11, “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”
6. Explain the Watergate break-in. What were they trying to do?Why?Who?
Committee to Reelect the President try to wiretap phones of the Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate apt complex in D.C. to find damaging info about delegates at their convention.
7. What happens to Nixon?How does Nixon react?
He is investigated to be impeached. He resigns becoming the first President to do so before he is impeached.
8. Who is the next President?What is peculiar about him becoming President?
Gerald Ford, Was never elected to become President or VP. He was appointed to be Nixon’s VP after Agnew resigned.
9.What does Ford do about Watergate/Nixon?
Ford pardons Nixon
10.What were the Camp David Accords? Who is the new President?
A framework for peace between Egypt and Israel, which was mediated by President Carter. Under the resulting peace treaty, Israel would withdraw from the Sinai peninsula, and Egypt became the first Arab country to recognize Israel’s existence.