Name of the candidate and address ginimol joseph



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RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, BANGALORE, KARNATAKA.


PERFORMA FOR REGISTRATION OF SUBJECTS FOR DISSERTATION


1.

NAME OF THE CANDIDATE AND ADDRESS

GINIMOL JOSEPH

I YEAR M.Sc. NURSING STUDENT,

JOSCO COLLEGE OF NURSING,

NELMANGALA, BANGALORE-562123.



2.

NAME OF THE INSTITUTION

JOSCO COLLEGE OF NURSING,

NELMANGALA, BANGALORE 562123-.



3.

COURSE OF STUDY AND SUBJECT

I YEAR M.Sc. NURSING

OBSTETRICS & GYNAECOLOGICAL NURSING.



4.

DATE OF ADMISSION TO COURSE




5.

TITLE OF THE TOPIC



A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS FEMALE FOETICIDE AMONG WORKING AND NON WORKING WOMEN IN SELECTED AREAS AT BANGALORE

6.

BRIEF RESUME OF THE INTENDED WORK:





INTRODUCTION

Female foeticide is a process of aborting perfectly healthy female foetuses after about 18 weeks (or more) of gestation just because they are females. The same foetuses would've been allowed to live if they were males. There is no question that female foeticide is not just unethical but it is downright cruel as well. Unethical because despite being in good health, the aborted baby girls' chance at life was taken away just because they were females, whilst they would've been permitted to live if they were males. Cruel because they were already partially grown and well on their way to become persons we refer to as the human infants.


Abortion is one of the topics in modern society that the experts in moral and ethical sciences have a hard time forming a clear opinion on. When discussing abortion, a few questions that are often raised are:
1) When does abortion become morally wrong?
2) Are abortions morally correct at all?
3) Should there be a blanket ban on abortions?
As with any other subject, there are two extreme schools of thought, in the case of abortions as well: pro-abortion and anti-abortion (also known as pro-life).
Those who are pro-abortion believe that ovum that develops into a baby upon fertilisation is part of a woman’s body, and hence, she has a total say on it. They argue that the fertilised ovum remains a part of the woman’s body until it is separated from her at childbirth. Therefore, she must have the freedom to do as she pleases with her body including the fertilised ovum. This stance lies close to the original agenda of feminism where childbearing is seen as a process of imposing domesticity on women. Hence, abortion is viewed as an argument for a woman’s freedom of personal choice from a feminist point of view. To justify itself, the pro-abortion view often uses the act-utilitarian approach according to which, if a mother is benefited if pregnancy is discontinued, abortion is justified.
On the other hand, the anti-abortion view is that a life is formed at conception with its unique genetic code and characteristics, and, hence, it deserves the same rights, including the right to life as a living person as soon as it is formed. According to those who are anti-abortion, abortion at any stage of pregnancy is wrong. The moral divide, for them, occurs when the ovum is fertilised since it is then that a new human being is conceived. Like the pro-abortion view, the anti-abortion also uses a utilitarian approach to justify its stance. However, it uses the rule-utilitarian approach, which states that all life should be given an equal chance to develop for the greater good of humanity.
In short, the pro-abortion view bases itself on the feminist agenda of freedom of choice for women whereas anti-abortion view condemns abortion by calling it an intervention that results in loss of life, unique in its characteristics and genetic information. For pro-abortion view, the moral divide occurs at childbirth, and for anti-abortion view, it occurs at conception. However, both these arguments are flawed in ignoring the transition phase from conception to childbirth. This doesn’t mean that either of the two views is wrong but only that they are invalid. Neither of them proves their point better than the other and, hence, a stalemate.
In the case of female foeticide, majority of abortions are done after 18 weeks of gestation because that’s when the gender of the fetus is visible with the available ultrasound scan technology. Abortions at this stage are also controversially known as the partial birth abortions as coined by an anti-abortion (pro-life) US congressman Charles T Canady in 1995. Partial birth abortions involve pulling the fetus by its leg through the dilated cervix after which the abortionist (doctor) jams scissors into the fetus skull to create a hole to suck the brain out in order to collapse the skull. The fetus is then removed. Majority of sex-selective abortions are partial birth abortions.
As far as my sensibilities are concerned, sex-selective abortions can never be justified, solely for the reason that they are discriminatory against the female sex. However, if we were to look at them from a pro-abortion view, according to which, a woman must be given freedom of choice whether she wants to raise a girl or a boy. The stage of pregnancy is immaterial, and so is the fact that partial birth abortions just seem cruelly inhumane. A woman’s right to choice is considered supreme.

However, this argument is only spearheaded by those who are unaware of societies that are diseased by the son-preference syndrome. They are ignorant of the mass extinction of the female sex occurring as a result of sex-selective abortions. They don’t realise that their stance of freedom of choice for women does not apply in societies that practice female foeticide. In these societies, women rarely have a say in the decisions that involve them or their body. They are not practicing their freedom of choice when aborting their child. Majority of them are pressured into doing so covertly or overtly. The pro-abortion argument does not hold in societies for example Indian and Chinese infested with female foeticide.


The anti-female foeticide movement is neither pro-abortion nor anti-abortion. It is merely pro-humanity. We just cannot wipe out our female population and expect to peacefully survive as a human race. It is a movement that requests the world to value their girl children enough to give them a chance to live because there will be no world if women don’t survive.

female foeticide remains the gravest of all the issues concerning women and education of girl child also needs urgent attention.

Some of the worst gender ratios, indicating gross violation of women’s rights, are found in South and East Asian countries such as India and China. The determination of the sex of the foetus by ultrasound scanning, amniocentesis, and in vitro fertilization has aggravated this situation. No moral or ethical principle supports such a procedure for gender identification. The situation is further worsened by a lack of awareness of women’s rights and by the indifferent attitude of governments and medical professionals. In India, the available legislation for prevention of sex determination needs strict implementation, alongside the launching of programmes aimed at altering attitudes, including those prevalent in the medical profession.

The killing of women exists in various forms in societies the world over. However, Indian society displays some unique and particularly brutal versions, such as dowry deaths and sati. Female foeticide is an extreme manifestation of violence against women. Female foetuses are selectively aborted after pre-natal sex determination, thus avoiding the birth of girls. As a result of selective abortion, between 35 and 40 million girls and women are missing from the Indian population. In some parts of the country, the sex ratio of girls to boys has dropped to less than 800:1,000. The United Nations has expressed serious concern about the situation. 

The sex ratio has altered consistently in favour of boys since the beginning of the 20th century (see Table), and the effect has been most pronounced in the states of Punjab, Haryana and Delhi. It was in these states that private foetal sex determination clinics were first established and the practice of selective abortion became popular from the late 1970s. Worryingly, the trend is far stronger in urban rather than rural areas, and among literate rather than illiterate women, exploding the myth that growing affluence and spread of basic education alone will result in the erosion of gender bias.


6.1.

NEED FOR THE STUDY
Steve Herman in New Delhi reports said that the India is the world's second most populous nation (after China) but yet there is a shortage of girls. A large part of the problem is a perception that girls are a financial burden. This preference for boys has led to the abortion of millions of female fetuses, or in some cases, even the murder of girl babies.

Indian school girls report revealed that the girls of India are disappearing. The child sex ratio had dipped sharply from 904 girls per 1000 boys in 2001 to 846 girls per 1000 boys in 2006. Boys tend to be preferred because they carry on the family name. But families here also fear the financial burden of girls - when it comes time to pay huge traditional dowries to their daughters' future husbands upon marriage.


Sabu George an academic and activist, says modern medicine makes it possible for Indian couples to now know the sex of their child before it is born. One out of every 25 female fetuses in India is aborted that is estimated that half million in a year. Parents who cannot afford expensive tests may take matters into their own hands. In some rural areas girl babies have been reported to be killed immediately after birth - strangled, suffocated or buried alive. And, often, girls who survive infancy die quite young activists say because they are given less food and medical care than their brothers. Those who do survive will generally get less of an education in both quality and quantity than the boys in the family.

The difficult situation has spread to even remote villages and well off families, making parents view the little angels who have been their sugar and spice as a monstrous burden to be done away with within hours of birth. What is shocking is that it does not shock us any more, given the regularity with which we hear such news.

Economic independence and empowerment will change the mindset and make people view women as assets and not liabilities. Laws against dowry must be made and practiced more stringently. Girls should be taught in school that they have to shoulder responsibility of parents in old age and should be made aware of their rights. This will reduce the pressure to produce a male heir as an insurance against hardships of old age

The curriculum in secondary schools and colleges should include social work and students should be made to visit villages and backward areas to create awareness on such issues. After all, attitudinal change can do wonders. Imagine a family or a society or a country without women. The condition would be disastrous and such a disaster may strike India if female foeticide is not stopped.

The President, Mrs. Pratibha Devisingh Patil, expressed serious concern over the increasing number of female foeticide cases and called for effective measures to stop them. In fact portable ultrasound machines are being carried by medical personnel across the country to villages and remote towns, where such facilities are otherwise not available, with just one result in an increase in female foeticide. There are cases of female foeticide. The use of new technology to determine sex of child is quiet worrying.

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh was listing steps to check female foeticide and asking the educated and prosperous parents to help, a woman doctor was waiting for justice for her twin girls. Female foeticide is an issue that demands serious thinking and action in the society. If this practice continues at the same pace, the day is near when there will be a scarcity of females for marriage.In last 100 years 30 million girls are missing in our country so if we cant solve this problem men need to It is a matter of grave concern that today in India we are discussing a thing like female foeticide. It speaks of a whole system gone corrupt, a whole society involved in conspiracy against women, against destruction of half the population of society, at the hands of monstrous practices becoming more and more rampant in a society fast losing its secular, social, and humanistic fabric.

A shocking picture emerges-every year, about 50,000 unborn girls-one in every 25-are aborted [2] and as a result the number of girls has actually gone down drastically in India. In 1997 UNPFA reports on India towards population and development goals, estimates that 48 million women were missing from India’s population. That is the sex ratio of 1036 females per 1000 males observed in some states of Kerala, which had prevailed in the whole country, the number of would be 455 million instead of the 407 million. Thus there is a case of between 32 to 48 million missing females in the Indian society.

There are 95 to 97 males to 100 females in Europe. The ratio is even less, 88 males to 100 females in Russia, mainly due to causalities of World War 2.

According to the UNICEF, 40 to 50 million girls have gone missing from Indian population since 1901 as a result of systematic gender discrimination in India. As per consensus 2001, the child ratio in Punjab is 793 girls to 1000 boys. 15 million illegal abortions carried out in the world in 1997.

In India, there are less than 93 women for every 100 men in the population. The accepted reason for such a disparity is the practice of female infanticide in India, prompted by the existence of a dowry system which requires the family to pay out a great deal of money when a female child is married. For a poor family, the birth of a girl child can signal the beginning of financial ruin and extreme hardship. However this anti-female bias is by no means limited to poor families. Much of the discrimination is to do with cultural beliefs and social norms. These norms themselves must be challenged if this practice is to stop6.


6.2.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Menick MD[2000]hyghlighted the deep motivation which may induce an African woman to kill her chlid.Reviewed the psychiatric report about various crimes and varied offenses acquired from Jann University Hospital.Result reveale that in total number of 164 report 20 concerned foeticide and result suggested that social and cultural reasons are more than medical ones explain the occurance of foeticide1


Adinkrah M [2000]conducted a cross cultural literature on childhood homicide by examining 16 infanticidal,homicidal that occurred in Fiji over an 11 years period .The findin g showed that infanticide defendants were young, poor had little formal education living with non-parental kin at the time of the crime The infanticide were precipitated by unwanted pregnancies brought on by non-marital and extra-marital sex.2
Spinelli MG[2005]illustrated the relationship between a society’s construction o parenthood ,mothering, cultural attitude and its experiences of infanticides .Result revealed that the causes vary from poverty to stigma ,dowry and insanity.3
Vallone DC,Hoffman LM[2003]stated that denying a pregnancy can result in consequences as tragic as neonaticide-the killing of an infant in the first 24 hours of life .Between 150and 300neonaticide are committed each year but the actual prevalence of pregnancy is unknown. Adolescents are especially vulnerable to pregnancy denial because the unexpected event creates such enormous anxiety and fear for them.4
Bauer M [1997]stated that a mentally healthy women killed her new born directly after parturition .The physical and mental factor of regency were continuously concealed , and even the menses persisted for 9 months. Psychiatric expert opinion certified a psychologically exceptional state of mind of woman ,and the court acquitted her.5

Eunayama M,Ikeda T ,Tabata N ,Azumi J, Morita M[1994]stated that 5 cases of repeated neonaticides were reported in Hokkaido , the Northernmost island of Japan , during the 10 years from 1983 to 1992. For or more neonates were involved in each case by each mother. All the suspected mothers were not mentally ill .Two of them were single and the rest of were married .Each husband was not aware of the pregnancy of his wife, because he was away from home very often. The main motive of murder seemed to be economic and­/or to save appearances.6


Chapman AH , Chapman-Santana M,Teixeira SA [1996]found that in young mothers and obsession of infanticide , that is, fear that they may murder their children , may be coupled with an obsession of imminent psychosis that sis fear that the first obsession is a sign of approaching insanity.16mothers with their clinical picture were evaluated in interviews . Seven of them entered psychotherapy and improved. The causative factors in childhood and adolescence with led to the later development of these obsessive difficulties are analyzed. Even when psychotherapy was not possible , as was the case in 9 patients, they should be strongly reassured and explanations should be given about the nature of the problem, for such encouragement and clarification helps them to improve to a significant extent. The prognosis of patients who have systematic psychotherapy is good .7


6.3.

STATEMENT OF THE STUDY
A Comparative Study To Assess The Knowledge And Attitude Towards “Female Foeticide” Among Working And Non Working Women In Selected Villages, Bangalore.


6.4.


OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


  1. To determine the knowledge scores of subjects.

  2. To determine the attitude scores of subjects.

  3. To compare the knowledge scores between the subjects.

  4. To compare the attitude scores between the subjects.

  5. To correlate the knowledge and attitude score of the subjects.

To associate the knowledge and attitude scores with personal characteristics of the subjects

6.5.

OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS
Knowledge: Refers to the correct responses of working and non working women on self administered knowledge questionnaire regarding ‘Female Foeticide ’.

Attitude: Refers to the correct responses of working and non working women on self administered rating scale on ‘Female Foeticide ’.

Female Foeticide: Female foeticide is a process of aborting perfectly healthy female foetuses after about 18 weeks (or more) of gestation just because they are females.

Working women: Refers to the women who are working

Non working women: Refers to the women who are not working

Personal characteristics: Refers to age, type of family, income, educational status, marital status, occupation and type of working institution

6.6.

HYPOTHESIS

H 1: The mean knowledge scores of working women will be equal to the mean knowledge scores of non working at 0.05 level of significance.

H 2: The mean attitude scores of working women will be equal to the mean knowledge scores of non working at 0.05 level of significance.

H 3: There will be significant correlation of mean knowledge scores with mean attitude score of working women at 0.05 level of significance.

H 4: There will be significant correlation of mean knowledge scores with mean attitude score of non working women at 0.05 level of significance

H 5: The will be significant association of mean knowledge scores with selected demographic variables of subjects at 0.05 level of significance

H 6: The will be significant association of mean attitude scores with selected demographic variables of subjects at 0.05 level of significance


6.7.

ASSUMPTIONS

It is assumed that:




  1. working women and non working women will be willing to express their knowledge and attitude regarding female foecitide.

  2. Nursing course has curriculum content on female foecitide.

6.8.

DELIMITATIONS

  1. The study is delimited to working and non working women.

  2. Working women and non working women who are available at the period of study.

  3. Limited to knowledge and attitude.

6.9.

PROJECTED OUTCOME

  1. The study will reveal the knowledge of working women and non working women.

  2. The study will reveal the attitude of working women and non working women



7.

MATERIALS AND METHODS



7.1

SOURCE OF DATA

Working and non working women residing at selected villages , Bangalore.


7.2.1.

INCLUSION CRITERIA




  • The working and non working women who are available at the time of the study.

  • working and non working women who are able to read English,

Kannada and Malayalam.

  • Who have given consent for the study.







EXCLUSION CRITERIA




  • Who have not given consent for the study.

  • The working and non working women who are not available at the time of the study.




7.2.2.

RESEARCH DESIGN

Non experimental descriptive design.

7.2.3.

SETTING

Study will be conducted at selected villages, Bangalore.


7.2.4.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

Convenient sampling technique.

7.2.5.

SAMPLE SIZE

50 working women and 50 non working women.



7.2.6.

TOOL OF RESEARCH

Self administered structured knowledge questionnaire will be developed and used to assess the Knowledge on female foeticide.

3 Three point rating scale will be developed and used to assess the attitude towards female foeticide.




7.2.7.

COLLECTION OF DATA

The researcher will administer the structured knowledge questionnaire and 3 point scale to assess the knowledge and attitude of working and non working women.


7.2.8.

METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION

The investigator will analyze the data obtained by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The plan of data analysis will be as follows:

  • Organize the data in a master sheet/ computer.

  • Frequencies and percentages for the analysis of background data.

  • Mean, Median, SD, ‘t’ values to determine the significant difference, ‘r’value to determine the significant correlation.

  • Chi-square test to determine the association.




7.3.

DOES THE STUDY REQUIRE ANY INVESTIGATION OR INTERVENTION TO BE CONDUCTED ON PATIENTS OR OTHER HUMANS OR ANIMALS? IF SO, PLEASE DESCRIBE BRIEFLY.

Yes, the study will be conducted on working and non working women at selected villages , Bangalore.



7.4.

HAS ETHICAL CLEARANCE BEEN OBTAINED FROM YOUR INSTITUTION IN CASE OF 7.3?

Yes, informed consent will be obtained from the institutional authorities and respondents. Privacy, confidentiality and anonymity will be guarded. Scientific objectivity of the study will be maintained with honesty and impartiality.



8.



LIST OF REFERENCES



  1. Eunayama M, Ikeda T , Tabata N, Azumi J, Morita M, Repeated neonaticides in Hokkaido, Forensic Sci Int. 1994 Feb;64(2-3):147-50

  2. Spinelli MG, Infanticide contrasting views , Arch Womans Ment Health. 2005 May ;8(1): 15-24. Epub 2005 May 4.

  3. Vallone DC, Hoffman LM, Preventing the tragedy of neonaticide, Holist Nurs Pract.2003 Sep-Oct; 223-30.

  4. Chapman AH, Chapman-Santana M, Teixeira SA, Obsessions of infanticide and imminent psychosis, Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 1996 Mar; 127-130.

  5. Bauer M, Infanticide in denied pregnancy, Psychiatr Prax. 1997 Sep 24; 248-50.

  6. Menick DM, Psychosocial aspects of infanticide in Black Africa, Child Abuse Negl. 2000 Dec; 24, 1557-65.

  7. Adinkrah M, Meternal infanticides in Fiji, Child Abuse Negl.2000 Dec; 24, 1543-55.

INTERNET(www.Yahoo.com )




  1. Lakes paradise, news feed, 15th Nov 2008.

  2. Parentry tips today 10th Nov 2008.

  3. India News Articles, 22nd Oct 2008.

  4. Times of India, 13th Nov 2008.

  5. Indo Asian News services 16th April 2007.

  6. The Hindu, 10th March 2007.

14 Nursing journal of India, April 2005


9.

SIGNATURE____11.5.__HEAD_OF_THE_DEPARTMENT'>SIGNATURE____11.3.__CO-GUIDE'>SIGNATURE_OF_THE_CANDIDATE____10.__REMARKS_OF_THE_GUIDE'>SIGNATURE OF THE CANDIDATE



10.

REMARKS OF THE GUIDE



11.

NAME AND DESIGNATION OF:



11.1.

GUIDE



11.2.

SIGNATURE



11.3.

CO-GUIDE

.

11.4.

SIGNATURE



11.5.

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT

.

11.6.

SIGNATURE


12.

REMARKS OF THE CHAIRMAN/ PRINCIPAL


12.1.

SIGNATURE










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