Use light blue to color the Sabine River and the Rio Grande.
When writing information on the map, always write neatly.
CAREFULLY read each informational paragraph and the map instructions! You will find information to help you complete the map within each paragraph.
Battle of Galveston
Confederates wanted to recapture the important port of Galveston, which had been taken by Union forces in October 1862. The Confederates, led by Major General John B. Magruder, entered Galveston on New Year's night, January 1, 1863, and opened fire before dawn. After a short naval battle, the Union ships sailed out to sea, ignoring Confederate surrender demands, which could be enforced only upon the abandoned federal infantry in town.
Magruder had retaken Galveston with a loss of twenty-six killed and 117 wounded. Union losses included the captured infantry and the Harriet Lane, about 150 casualties on the naval ships, as well as the destruction of the Westfield. The port remained under Confederate control for the rest of the war.
On the map:
Color the battle symbol at Galveston to represent the victor.
Write Galveston and January 1863 in the white next to the battle symbol.
The United States Navy blockaded the Texas coast beginning in the summer of 1861, while Confederates fortified the major ports. The Union army hoped to land near Sabine City, and march overland to attack Houston and Beaumont. In September 1863, 4,000 Union soldiers under the command of Gen. William B. Franklin were sent to gain a foothold at Sabine Pass, where the Sabine River flows into the Gulf of Mexico. On September 6, the Union gunboats began their advance through the pass, firing on the fort as they steamed forward. The Davis Guards, under the direction of Confederate Lt. Richard Dowling, emerged to man their guns as the ships came within 1,200 yards.
After only 35 minutes, the Confederates captured 300 Union prisoners and two gunboats. Franklin and the Union army turned back to New Orleans. The Davis Guards, who suffered no casualties during the battle, received the thanks of the Confederate Congress for their victory.
On the map:
Color the battle symbol at Sabine Pass to represent the victor.
Write Sabine Pass and September 1863 in the white next to the battle symbol.
In text box #2, write the name of the battle, who was in command, and what resulted. Include major details and who won.
Union naval forces continued to maintain a blockade of the Texas coastline throughout the war, but its effectiveness is difficult to measure. Ships loaded with cotton sailed out of Galveston and other Texas ports several times a week, while other vessels sailing from Mexico, Havana and Caribbean ports returned with trade goods, munitions, and Enfield rifles.
Union troops were temporarily more successful in southern Texas. In November 1863, 7,000 Union soldiers commanded by General Banks landed at the mouth of the Rio Grande and captured Brownsville, cutting the important trade between Texas and Mexico. In the summer of 1864, Confederate and state troops commanded by John S. “Rip” Ford recaptured Brownsville and reopened the vital trade link with Mexico. By the end of the war the only Union holding on the lower Texas coast was Brazos Island.
On the map:
Draw 4 ships along the Gulf Coast, and print the words Union Blockade. Color the ships DARK BLUE.
In text box #3, write the name of the battle, who was in command, and what resulted. Include major details and who won.
Battle of Palmito Ranch
Early in the war the Union army had briefly occupied Brownsville but had been unable to hold the city. They established a base at Brazos Santiago on Brazos Island from which to blockade the Rio Grande and Brownsville. They were, however, unable to blockade the Mexican port of Bagdad, just below the river. On May 1, 1865, a passenger on a steamer heading up the Rio Grande towards Brownsville tossed a copy of the New Orleans Times to some Confederates at Palmito Ranch. The paper contained the news of Lee's surrender, Lincoln's death, and the surrender negotiations between Johnston and Sherman.
On May 13, 1865, more than a month after the surrender of Gen. Robert E. Lee, the last action of the Civil War took place at Palmito Ranch near Brownsville. With mounted cavalry and artillery, General John Ford had the perfect force to deal with the Union infantry on the flat, open land around Palmito Ranch. The battle lasted a total of four hours. Confederate casualties were a few dozen wounded. The federals lost 111 men and four officers captured, and thirty men wounded or killed. Ironically, at the same time as the battle of Palmito Ranch, the Confederate governors of Arkansas, Louisiana, Missouri, and Texas were authorizing Kirby Smith to disband his armies and end the war. A few days later federal officers from Brazos Santiago visited Brownsville to arrange a truce with General Slaughter and Colonel Ford.
On the map:
Color the battle symbol at Palmito Ranch to represent the victor.
Write Palmito Ranch and May 13, 1865 in the white next to the battle symbol.
In text box #4, write the name of the battle, who was in command, and what resulted. Include major details and who won.