Name: key main Ideas of the Renaissance, Reformation, Exploration, Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution The Beginning of the Renaissance

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The Counter-Reformation The Catholic Church responded to Protestantism with the Counter-Reformation, a period of serious reform. At the Council of Trent, Catholic leaders created a more precise statement of Catholic belief and worked to end corruption. Reformers, such as the Jesuits, actively fought the spread of Protestantism through missionary work and the Inquisition.

Effects of the Reformation By the end of the wars that followed the Reformation, medieval Europe was largely a thing of the past. The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 set boundaries between Catholic and Protestant lands. This religious division survived into modern times and spread to wherever Europeans controlled territory around the world. In the period following the Reformation, Europe experienced a rise in nationalism and a strengthening of the monarchies. Yet, Protestantism also led to the beginnings of modern democracy.

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