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Course of the First Four Crusades

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Cruades questions

Course of the First Four Crusades: There were 9 Crusades fought by European Christians against Muslims in the Middle East. The following chart summarizes the first 4 Crusades.






At the urging of Pope Urban II in 1095, the First Crusade succeeded in taking Jerusalem and was the most successful from the European point of view. When Jerusalem fell in 1099, crusaders massacred Jews, Christians and Muslims alike. Then the leaders divided up the land into territories, each governed by a European feudal lord.



The Second Crusade started when Europeans lost control of Edessa, territory that they had previously controlled, to the Muslims. Led by King Louis VII of France and King Conrad III of Germany, the Europeans failed to regain any land and the crusade was a failure from a European point of view.



The Third Crusade was a response to Jerusalem’s fall in 1187 to Salah al-Din (Saladin). Three great armies from Europe were led by Richard the Lion-hearted of England, Philip II of France, and the Holy Roman emperor Frederick Barbarossa, Europe’s greatest warrior. However, Frederick accidentally drowned, the other two kings quarreled, and the whole crusade failed from a European point of view.



Instead of going to Jerusalem, the Fourth Crusade went to the Byzantine Empire’s capital, Constantinople, for various reasons. The European armies looted (robbed) the city and overthrew the Byzantine emperor. The main outcomes of the Fourth Crusade were to deepen the division between Greek and Latin Christianity and to hasten the Byzantine Empire’s decline.

Directions: Read the sources and answer the questions either in your history notebook or on a Google document. Please share the Google document with Mr. Horn for credit.

Why Did People Go on the Crusades? – Part I

Below are 4 sources that give clues about why people from Europe went on the Crusades. As you read them, see how many reasons you can discover for why people wanted to go to the place called the “Holy Land.” Answer the questions in your history notebook.

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