Name: Essay: December 20 Unit 5: The Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment Directions

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Name:_________________________ Essay: December 20

Unit 5: The Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
Directions: The following people, events, and terms have been provided as a guideline for which to take notes. Feel free to take notes in another manner if this does not work for you. I have not provided much space for each term as it is assumed that you will type the notes and you can expand upon each topic as much or as little as you wish.
Assignment #1: 484-485
What contributions did medieval scholars make to science?

What contributions did Renaissance scholars and artists make to science?

What role did technology and M=math play in the scientific revolution?

What is Hermeticism and why do some argue it made the scientific revolution possible?
Assignment #2: 485-493

Geocentric Conception

Nicolaus Copernicus

On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres

Heliocentric Conception

Tycho Brahe

Johannes Kepler

Three laws of planetary motion

Galileo Galilei

The Starry Messenger

Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems

How did Copernicus both change and maintain the Aristotelian-Ptolemaic view of the universe?

How did Brahe advance Copernicus’ ideas?

How did Kepler’s three laws of planetary motion change the universal conception forever?

What discoveries did Galileo make with his telescope?

What were Galileo’s experiences with the Church? How was he affected by this?

What were Galileo’s contributions to the idea of planetary motion?

Assignment #3: 493-495

Isaac Newton


World Machine

Three Laws of Motion

Universal Law of Gravitation

World Machine

What were Galileo’s contributions to the idea of planetary motion?

What work did Newton do with light and Math?

Why were Newton’s ideas of motion so important?
Assignment #4: 499-502

Rene Descartes

Discourse on Method

Cartesian Dualism


Scientific Method

Francis Bacon

Inductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning


How is Bacon’s method of inquiry different from that of Descartes?

How did Newton unite the two scientific methodologies?

Assignment #5: 502-505

Scientific Societies

-French Academy of Sciences

-Royal Society of England

Benedict de Spinoza

Ethics Demonstrated in the Geometrical Manner

Blaise Pascal


What contributed to the spread of scientific ideas?

Why was the “new science” rapidly accepted in Europe?

How did natural philosophers try to bridge the growing gap between science and faith?
Assignment #6: 495-499


Galenic Functioning of the Body

Four Bodily Humors


Macrocosm-Microcosm Analogy

“Like cures like”

Andreas Vesalius

On the Fabric of the Human Body

William Harvey

Robert Boyle

Boyle’s Law

Antoine Lavoisier

Margaret Cavendish

Maria Winkelmann

Why did Galen’s practices produce misconceptions?

How were Paracelsus’ ideas about chemistry different than those that came before?

How did Vesalius correct Galen’s mistakes?

What did Harvey discover and change about previous ideas on circulation?

What did Maria Winkelmann’s experience represent about women in general?

How did the Scientific Revolution actually hurt the position of women in society?
Assignment #7: 509-513


Immanuel Kant

Bernard de Fontanelle

“Noble savage”

Cultural Relativism

John Locke

Tabula Rasa


Pierre Bayle

Historical and Critical Dictionary



How did the thinkers of the enlightenment apply the ideas of the Scientific Revolution?

What was the importance of Fontanelle’s ideas?

How did Newton and Locke influence thought?

What similarities bound the philosophes together despite their background?
Assignment #8: 513-516

The Baron de Montesquieu

Spirit of Laws


Philosophic Letters

Treatise on Toleration


Denis Diderot


How would Montesquieu’s political philosophy impact future governments?

Why did Voltaire praise England?

How were the religious views of Voltaire and Diderot drastically different from other philosophers?
Assignment #9: 516-517

David Hume

Treatise on Human Nature


Francois Quesnay


Adam Smith

Wealth of Nations

Economic Liberalism

Describe the three principals of natural economic law as stated by the physiocrats.

Explain Adam Smith’s economic ideals. How is he both similar to and different than the other physiocrats?
Assignment #10: 517-519

Paul d’Holbach

System of Nature

Marie-Jean de Condorcet

Progress of the Human Mind

Jean-Jacques Rousseu

The Social Contract


How did Holbach’s views on nature shape his spiritual beliefs?

What was ironic about Condorcet’s death?

How does Rousseau attempt to harmonize individual liberty with government authority?

What were Rousseau’s views on education and women?
Assignment #11: 519-522

Mary Astell

Mary Wollstonecraft

Vindication of the Rights of Women


Marie-Therese Geoffrin

What was the standard “scientific” belief about women by the 17th century?

What were two key arguments which supported a changing view of women during the Enlightenment?

Who was most affected by the Enlightenment?

What was the role of women in the salons of Paris?
Assignment #12: 522-528


Antoine Watteau

Balthasar Neumann


Jacques-Louis David

Johann Sebastian Bach

George Frederick Handel

Franz Joseph Hadyn

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

High Culture

Popular culture

How did the Rococo style contrast with the Baroque movement which preceded it?

How was the Neoclassical style different from the Rococo?

What elements of the Baroque style do Bach and Handel demonstrate in their music?

How did the philosophes revolutionize the writing of history?

What important developments came about as a result of the growth of publishing and reading in the 18th century?

What changes in the field of education took place in the 18th century?

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