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7th Grade CRCT Study Guide

Africa
Unit 5: People & Places of Africa

Atlas Mountains

Kalahari Desert

Lake Victoria

Lake Tanganyika

Nile River

Niger River

Congo River

Sahel

Sahara Desert

South Sudan

Sudan

South Africa

Nigeria

Kenya

Egypt

Democratic Republic of the Congo



  1. Locate (label) these countries: Dem Rep of Congo, Egypt, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Sudan, and South Sudan

  2. Locate (label) these physical features: Sahara Desert, Sahel, Congo River, Niger River, Nile River, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Atlas Mts., Kalahari Desert

  3. People in the Sahara are usually nomadic herders and live near oasis

  4. People in the Sahel do subsistence farming & nomadic herding and live in cities that still have some vegetation

  5. People in the savanna do a lot of work in game reserves, some farming etc.

  6. People in the rainforest farm, and use the forest to create medicines and harvest wood

  7. Arabs—live in north Africa; see Unit 1

  8. Ashanti—live in west Africa, known for gold, and their religion is a combination of spiritual and supernatural

  9. Bantu—considered to be the first people of Africa, language is still widely spoken, began in central Africa and migrated in 1000 BC,

  10. Swahili—found on the eastern coast of Africa, traded with India and the Middle East, language has Arab parts

  11. Deforestation—cutting down of trees and creating unusable land

  12. Desertification—when land becomes permanently unusable for farming


Unit 6: Conflict & the Shaping of Modern Africa


  1. Colonization of Africa

    • European powers lured by natural resources and new markets for goods

    • Berlin Conference—Africa partitioned not based on ethnic groups and treated Africans badly

    • When European powers left, people were not ready to take care of themselves and power struggles raged

    • Africa has never recovered

  1. Nationalism—belief that your group is superior and you deserve to rule yourselves (have your own country)

  2. Nationalist movement

    • Kenya—British colony, Jomo Kenyatta, Mau Mau, violent fight for independence

    • Nigeria—British colony, non-violent fight for independence, groups were favored over others

    • South Africa—British colony, early independence, Boers, apartheid began afterwards

  1. Apartheid

    • racial separation in South Africa

    • FW de Klerk supported it but then worked with Nelson Mandela

    • Mandela was a black man who fought against apartheid

    • After apartheid ended in 1991, de Klerk was elected president and Mandela was VP.

    • Eventually Mandela was elected the first black president in 1994

  1. Pan-Africanism—movement that people of African decent should band together so African nations can be free.

  2. Education is slowed down by gender inequality, war, AIDS etc.



  1. When a government is unstable, they do not help their people

    • They don’t give money to combat AIDS

    • They don’t help when there are famines and often use that food for the government

  1. Drinking water is often contaminated by cholera and pollution


Unit 7: Government & Corruption in Africa
dictatorshipnotext monarchynotext parliamentarydemocracynotext

Dictatorship Monarchy Parliamentary Democracy
theocracynotext presidentialdemocracynotext republicnotext

Theocracy Presidential Democracy Republic

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Least Freedom

Most Freedom


  1. Kenya

    • Republic

    • Democratic federal

    • Place on ruler—around a 5 because in recent years they’ve had rigged elections, citizens can criticize the government in limited amounts

  1. Sudan

    • Dictatorship

    • Autocratic unitary

    • Place on the ruler—around a 2, crimes against humanity in Darfur, no freedoms, somewhat Islamic state

  1. South Africa

Unit 8: Economic Hardship vs. Economic Promise in Africa (*Review Unit 4 before reading this section)


  1. South Africa is more market than command

  2. Kenya is moving toward market but government corruption keeps it more command

  3. Human capital—humans that do work, if you invest in your people they will be healthier smarter and work harder

  4. Natural resources—gift of nature, Africa has lots of natural resources but can’t manage them like they should, they are often unequally distributed

  5. Capital resources—factories, machines, technology etc, that are used to make products, if you invest in these things your country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) will go up

  6. Entrepreneurship is bringing together human natural and capital resources to take risks in businesses

  7. The higher the literacy rate the better standard of living



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